- Modified Criteria for Radiographic Response Assessment in Glioblastoma Clinical Trials. [Review]
- NNeurotherapeutics 2017 Jan 20
- Radiographic endpoints including response and progression are important for the evaluation of new glioblastoma therapies. The current RANO criteria was developed to overcome many of the challenges id...
Radiographic endpoints including response and progression are important for the evaluation of new glioblastoma therapies. The current RANO criteria was developed to overcome many of the challenges identified with previous guidelines for response assessment, however, significant challenges and limitations remain. The current recommendations build on the strengths of the current RANO criteria, while addressing many of these limitations. Modifications to the current RANO criteria include suggestions for volumetric response evaluation, use contrast enhanced T1 subtraction maps to increase lesion conspicuity, removal of qualitative non-enhancing tumor assessment requirements, use of the post-radiation time point as the baseline for newly diagnosed glioblastoma response assessment, and "treatment-agnostic" response assessment rubrics for identifying pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and a confirmed durable response in newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma trials.
- The Therapeutic Effectiveness of Delayed Fetal Spinal Cord Tissue Transplantation on Respiratory Function Following Mid-Cervical Spinal Cord Injury. [Journal Article]
- NNeurotherapeutics 2017 Jan 17
- Respiratory impairment due to damage of the spinal respiratory motoneurons and interruption of the descending drives from brainstem premotor neurons to spinal respiratory motoneurons is the leading c...
Respiratory impairment due to damage of the spinal respiratory motoneurons and interruption of the descending drives from brainstem premotor neurons to spinal respiratory motoneurons is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following cervical spinal cord injury. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of delayed transplantation of fetal spinal cord (FSC) tissue on respiratory function in rats with mid-cervical spinal cord injury. Embryonic day-14 rat FSC tissue was transplanted into a C4 spinal cord hemilesion cavity in adult male rats at 1 week postinjury. The histological results showed that FSC-derived grafts can survive, fill the lesion cavity, and differentiate into neurons and astrocytes at 8 weeks post-transplantation. Some FSC-derived graft neurons exhibited specific neurochemical markers of neurotransmitter (e.g., serotonin, noradrenalin, or acetylcholine). Moreover, a robust expression of glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic fibers was observed within FSC-derived grafts. Retrograde tracing results indicated that there was a connection between FSC-derived grafts and host phrenic nucleus. Neurophysiological recording of the phrenic nerve demonstrated that phrenic burst amplitude ipsilateral to the lesion was significantly greater in injured animals that received FSC transplantation than in those that received buffer transplantation under high respiratory drives. These results suggest that delayed FSC transplantation may have the potential to repair the injured spinal cord and promote respiratory functional recovery after mid-cervical spinal cord injury.
- Abstracts from HSG 2016: Discovering Our Future, the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Huntington Study Group (HSG). [News]
- NNeurotherapeutics 2017; 14(1):227-251
- New Directions in Anti-Angiogenic Therapy for Glioblastoma. [Review]
- NNeurotherapeutics 2017 Jan 12
- Anti-angiogenic therapy has become an important component in the treatment of many solid tumors given the importance of adequate blood supply for tumor growth and metastasis. Despite promising precli...
Anti-angiogenic therapy has become an important component in the treatment of many solid tumors given the importance of adequate blood supply for tumor growth and metastasis. Despite promising preclinical data and early clinical trials, anti-angiogenic agents have failed to show a survival benefit in randomized controlled trials of patients with glioblastoma. In particular, agents targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) appear to prolong progression free survival, possibly improve quality of life, and decrease steroid usage, yet the trials to date have demonstrated no extension of overall survival. In order to improve duration of response and convey a survival benefit, additional research is still needed to explore alternative pro-angiogenic pathways, mechanisms of resistance, combination strategies, and biomarkers to predict therapeutic response.
- Early Minocycline and Late FK506 Treatment Improves Survival and Alleviates Neuroinflammation, Neurodegeneration, and Behavioral Deficits in Prion-Infected Hamsters. [Journal Article]
- NNeurotherapeutics 2017 Jan 12
- Prion infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are characterized by initial reactive gliosis followed by overt neuronal death. Gliosis is likely to be caused initially by the deposition of misf...
Prion infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are characterized by initial reactive gliosis followed by overt neuronal death. Gliosis is likely to be caused initially by the deposition of misfolded, proteinase K-resistant, isoforms (termed PrP(Sc)) of the normal cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) in the brain. Proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines released by PrP(Sc)-activated glia and stressed neurons may also contribute directly or indirectly to the disease development by enhancing gliosis and inducing neurotoxicity. Recent studies have illustrated that early neuroinflammation activates nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in the calcineurin signaling cascade, resulting in nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) to promote apoptosis. Hence, useful therapeutic approaches to slow down the course of prion disease development should control early inflammatory responses to suppress NFAT signaling. Here we used a hamster model of prion diseases to test, for the first time, the neuroprotective and NFAT-suppressive effect of a second-generation semisynthetic tetracycline derivative, minocycline, versus a calcineurin inhibitor, FK506, with known NFAT suppressive activity. Our results indicate that prolonged treatment with minocycline, starting from the presymptomatic stage of prion disease was more effective than FK506 given either during the presymptomatic or symptomatic stage of prion disease. Specifically, minocycline treatment reduced the expression of the astrocyte activation marker glial fibrillary acidic protein and of the microglial activation marker ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1, subsequently reducing the level of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor-α. We further found that minocycline and FK506 treatment inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 phosphorylation and NF-κB nuclear translocation in a caspase-dependent manner, and enhanced phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein and phosphorylated Bcl2-associated death promoter levels to reduce cognitive impairment and apoptosis. Taken together, our results indicate that minocycline is a better choice for prolonged use in prion diseases and encourage its further clinical development as a possible treatment for this disease.
- Enhanced Bulbar Function in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: The Nuedexta Treatment Trial. [Journal Article]
- NNeurotherapeutics 2017 Jan 09
- The goal of this randomized, blinded, crossover clinical trial was to determine whether Nuedexta (dextromethorphan and quinidine) enhanced speech, swallowing, and salivation in patients with ALS. Six...
The goal of this randomized, blinded, crossover clinical trial was to determine whether Nuedexta (dextromethorphan and quinidine) enhanced speech, swallowing, and salivation in patients with ALS. Sixty patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) received either Nuedexta or placebo for 28 to 30 days, followed by a 10 to 15-day washout period. Subsequently, patients were switched to the opposite treatment arm for the remaining days of the trial. The primary endpoint was a reduction in the self-report Center for Neurologic Study Bulbar Function Scale (CNS-BFS) score. The rater-administered ALS Functional Rating Scale Revised was the principal secondary endpoint. The CNS-BFS score improved with active treatment, decreasing from a mean of 59.3 in the placebo arm of the trial to 53.5 during the drug-treatment arm (p < 0.001). Each of the individual domains of bulbar function interrogated by the CNS-BFS responded to treatment with Nuedexta as follows: 1) salivation: 15.8 versus 14.3 (p = 0.004); speech: 24.6 versus 22.2 (p = 0.003); swallowing: 18.9 versus 17.1 (p = 0.009). Similarly, the bulbar component of the ALS Functional Rating Scale Revised improved with active treatment (p = 0.003), although the drug did not affect the motor and respiratory components of this scale. This study is unique for several reasons. Firstly, it was driven by patient reports of improved speech and swallowing while taking Nuedexta for control of emotional lability. Secondly, the study was conducted over a short duration (70 days), and thirdly, a self-report scale was selected as the principle outcome measure. Considering the importance of bulbar functions, these results, if confirmed, point to an additional use of Nuedexta as an adjunct to the management of ALS.
- Boundary Cap Neural Crest Stem Cells Promote Survival of Mutant SOD1 Motor Neurons. [Journal Article]
- NNeurotherapeutics 2017 Jan 09
- ALS is a devastating disease resulting in degeneration of motor neurons (MNs) in the brain and spinal cord. The survival of MNs strongly depends on surrounding glial cells and neurotrophic support fr...
ALS is a devastating disease resulting in degeneration of motor neurons (MNs) in the brain and spinal cord. The survival of MNs strongly depends on surrounding glial cells and neurotrophic support from muscles. We previously demonstrated that boundary cap neural crest stem cells (bNCSCs) can give rise to neurons and glial cells in vitro and in vivo and have multiple beneficial effects on co-cultured and co-implanted cells, including neural cells. In this paper, we investigate if bNCSCs may improve survival of MNs harboring a mutant form of human SOD1 (SOD1(G93A)) in vitro under normal conditions and oxidative stress and in vivo after implantation to the spinal cord. We found that survival of SOD1(G93A) MNs in vitro was increased in the presence of bNCSCs under normal conditions as well as under oxidative stress. In addition, when SOD1(G93A) MN precursors were implanted to the spinal cord of adult mice, their survival was increased when they were co-implanted with bNCSCs. These findings show that bNCSCs support survival of SOD1(G93A) MNs in normal conditions and under oxidative stress in vitro and improve their survival in vivo, suggesting that bNCSCs have a potential for the development of novel stem cell-based therapeutic approaches in ALS models.
- Magnetoencephalography and New Imaging Modalities in Epilepsy. [Review]
- NNeurotherapeutics 2017; 14(1):4-10
- The success of epilepsy surgery is highly dependent on correctly identifying the entire epileptogenic region. Current state-of-the-art for localizing the extent of surgically amenable areas involves ...
The success of epilepsy surgery is highly dependent on correctly identifying the entire epileptogenic region. Current state-of-the-art for localizing the extent of surgically amenable areas involves combining high resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) source modeling of interictal epileptiform activity. Coupling these techniques with newer quantitative structural MRI techniques, such as cortical thickness measurements, however, may improve the extent to which the abnormal epileptogenic region can be visualized. In this review we assess the utility of EEG, MEG and quantitative structural MRI methods for the evaluation of patients with epilepsy and introduce a novel method for the co-localization of a structural MRI measurement to MEG and EEG source modeling. When combined, these techniques may better identify the extent of abnormal structural and functional areas in patients with medically intractable epilepsy.
- The Copper bis(thiosemicarbazone) Complex Cu(II)(atsm) Is Protective Against Cerebral Ischemia Through Modulation of the Inflammatory Milieu. [Journal Article]
- NNeurotherapeutics 2017 Jan 03
- Developing new therapies for stroke is urgently needed, as this disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and the existing treatment is only available for a small subset of pati...
Developing new therapies for stroke is urgently needed, as this disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and the existing treatment is only available for a small subset of patients. The interruption of blood flow to the brain during ischemic stroke launches multiple immune responses, characterized by infiltration of peripheral immune cells, the activation of brain microglial cells, and the accumulation of immune mediators. Copper is an essential trace element that is required for many critical processes in the brain. Copper homeostasis is disturbed in chronic neurodegenerative diseases and altered in stroke patients, and targeted copper delivery has been shown to be protective against chronic neurodegeneration. This study was undertaken to assess whether the copper bis(thiosemicarbazone) complex, Cu(II)(atsm), is beneficial in acute brain injury, in preclinical mouse models of ischemic stroke. We demonstrate that the copper complex Cu(II)(atsm) protects neurons from excitotoxicity and N2a cells from OGD in vitro, and is protective in permanent and transient ischemia models in mice as measured by functional outcome and lesion size. Copper delivery in the ischemic brains modulates the inflammatory response, specifically affecting the myeloid cells. It reduces CD45 and Iba1 immunoreactivity, and alters the morphology of Iba1 positive cells in the ischemic brain. Cu(II)(atsm) also protects endogenous microglia against ischemic insult and reduces the proportion of invading monocytes. These results demonstrate that the copper complex Cu(II)(atsm) is an inflammation-modulating compound with high therapeutic potential in stroke and is a strong candidate for the development of therapies for acute brain injury.
New Search Next
- Occipital Nerve Field Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Normalizes Imbalance Between Pain Detecting and Pain Inhibitory Pathways in Fibromyalgia. [Journal Article]
- NNeurotherapeutics 2016 Dec 21
- Occipital nerve field (OCF) stimulation with subcutaneously implanted electrodes is used to treat headaches, more generalized pain, and even failed back surgery syndrome via unknown mechanisms. Trans...
Occipital nerve field (OCF) stimulation with subcutaneously implanted electrodes is used to treat headaches, more generalized pain, and even failed back surgery syndrome via unknown mechanisms. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can predict the efficacy of implanted electrodes. The purpose of this study is to unravel the neural mechanisms involved in global pain suppression, mediated by occipital nerve field stimulation, within the realm of fibromyalgia. Nineteen patients with fibromyalgia underwent a placebo-controlled OCF tDCS. Electroencephalograms were recorded at baseline after active and sham stimulation. In comparison with healthy controls, patients with fibromyalgia demonstrate increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, increased premotor/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity, and an imbalance between pain-detecting dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and pain-suppressing pregenual anterior cingulate cortex activity, which is normalized after active tDCS but not sham stimulation associated with increased pregenual anterior cingulate cortex activation. The imbalance improvement between the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex is related to clinical changes. An imbalance assumes these areas communicate and, indeed, abnormal functional connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex is noted to be caused by a dysfunctional effective connectivity from the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, which improves and normalizes after real tDCS but not sham tDCS. In conclusion, OCF tDCS exerts its effect via activation of the descending pain inhibitory pathway and de-activation of the salience network, both of which are abnormal in fibromyalgia.