- Enhancing a Client-Centred Practice with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. [Review]
- OTOccup Ther Int 2018; 2018:5956301
- CONCLUSIONS: The use of the COPM seems to enhance CCP if certain conditions are present.
- Pinnipeds and PTSD: An Analysis of a Human-Animal Interaction Case Study Program for a Veteran. [Journal Article]
- OTOccup Ther Int 2018; 2018:2686728
- The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a pinniped (grey and harbor seals) facilitated human-animal interaction pilot program on the self-reported PTSD-like symptoms of a veteran. Th...
The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a pinniped (grey and harbor seals) facilitated human-animal interaction pilot program on the self-reported PTSD-like symptoms of a veteran. This study analyzed preexisting, deidentified data that represented the participant's scores on the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-5). The PCL-5 was completed as part of a pilot program operated in partnership between the Veteran and Military Affiliated Research Center (VMARC) and a local aquarium. Scores on the PCL-5 were collected prior to (T1), midway (T2), and immediately after (T3) completion of the Project Seal to Heal program. Changes in the scores of each item were reported for the participant, for aggregated items that represented different clusters of PTSD symptoms, and for overall scores. Results revealed decreased scores in 11 of the 20 PTSD symptom-related items, improvement in the sum scores for each criteria symptom cluster, and a 15-point decrease in the overall PCL-5 score, indicating clinical significance. These results serve as a call to motivate future research investigating pinniped interactions with veterans who have PTSD in order to determine therapeutic clinical application and outcomes.
- Everyday Activities for Children with Mitochondrial Disorder: A Retrospective Chart Review. [Journal Article]
- OTOccup Ther Int 2018; 2018:5716947
- CONCLUSIONS: This pilot exploration indicates that the types of activities that children with mitochondrial disorders perform are not necessarily linked to the child's impairments. However, differences in levels of independence, assistive device usage, and energy costs seem to exist. Future research should address the child's perspective on, and meaning of, activity performances.
- Awareness and Knowledge about Occupational Therapy in Jordan. [Journal Article]
- OTOccup Ther Int 2018; 2018:2493584
- Knowledge and awareness about occupational therapy (OT) are essential for the delivery of quality care to all clients and for occupational therapists' (OTRs) job satisfaction. OT has been a poorly un...
Knowledge and awareness about occupational therapy (OT) are essential for the delivery of quality care to all clients and for occupational therapists' (OTRs) job satisfaction. OT has been a poorly understood profession in Jordan. The current study reports on the assessment of Jordanians' awareness and knowledge of occupational therapy. Convenience sampling was used. There were 829 participants (474 males, 355 females), with mean age of 32 ± 11.6 yrs. They were recruited from the three main geographical areas of Jordan (northern, central, and southern) and from all educational levels. The sample included 222 (26.8%) healthcare personnel, 146 (17.6%) clients, and 461 (55.6%) lay persons. Participants completed questionnaires, and the results revealed that 48% of the sample had poor or no knowledge about OT, while 28.3% were unaware of it. Also, OT was commonly (50%) perceived to be exclusively targeting people with disabilities (PWDs) and neurological and physical conditions (58% and 53%, resp.) in addition to exclusively providing services for the rehabilitation of the upper extremity (48%). Common misconceptions associated with OT were that OTRs prescribe medication (43%) and OTRs are physiotherapists (44%). These preliminary findings suggest that efforts need to be directed by OTRs, the Jordanian Society of Occupational Therapy (JSOT), and the Ministry of Health to preserve the OT identity and value and promote knowledge about OT in the public and among members of interdisciplinary teams. More interprofessional learning needs to be incorporated within the curricula and placements of all healthcare personnels.
- Role Participation: A Comparison across Age Groups in a Norwegian General Population Sample. [Journal Article]
- OTOccup Ther Int 2018; 2018:8680915
- CONCLUSIONS: Role continuity was the most prevalent role pattern in the total sample, whereas role loss appeared to be the most prevalent role pattern among those in the oldest age group. Rehabilitation services in general and participation-focused occupational therapy in particular may profit from assessing role participation in clients and potentially target roles through intervention.
- Evidence-Based Clinical Algorithm for Hypotonia Assessment: To Pardon the Errs. [Review]
- OTOccup Ther Int 2018; 2018:8967572
- Despite the many advances in diagnostics, the clinical assessment of children with hypotonia presents a diagnostic challenge for clinicians due to the current subjectivity of the initial clinical ass...
Despite the many advances in diagnostics, the clinical assessment of children with hypotonia presents a diagnostic challenge for clinicians due to the current subjectivity of the initial clinical assessment. The aim of this paper is to report on an evidence-based clinical algorithm (EBCA) that was developed for the clinical assessment of hypotonia in children as part of the output of a multiphased study towards assisting clinicians in more accurate assessments. This study formed part of a larger advanced mixed methods design. The preceding phases of the study included a systematic review, a survey amongst clinicians, a consensus process (Delphi technique), and a qualitative critique with multiple focus groups. Samples were drawn from three professional groups (occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and paediatricians). Data were analysed at each stage and merged in the development of the EBCA. The EBCA followed a rigorous process of development and critique. The methods for formulating changes in the revision and development of the EBCA are presented together with a description and presentation of the final algorithm for practice. The overarching concepts that guided the development and refinement of the EBCA are described, taking into consideration knowledge translation, evidence-based practice, and the value of EBCAs in addition to recommendations for stakeholder uptake. The EBCA is envisaged to be useful in practice for clinicians who are faced with the assessment of a child that is suspected as having hypotonia via a systematic process in identifying specific characteristics that are associated with low muscle tone.
- Effects of Oral Stimulation Intervention in Newborn Babies with Cri du Chat Syndrome: Single-Subject Research Design. [Journal Article]
- OTOccup Ther Int 2018; 2018:6573508
- The purpose of this study is to treat dysphagia in a newborn baby with cri du chat syndrome using an oral stimulation intervention and to examine its effects. The subject of this study was a baby bor...
The purpose of this study is to treat dysphagia in a newborn baby with cri du chat syndrome using an oral stimulation intervention and to examine its effects. The subject of this study was a baby born 2 weeks prematurely. Since birth, his oxygen saturation (SaO2) decreased while feeding, and he had difficulty with mouth feeding. Thus, an NG feeding tube was inserted, and dysphagia treatment was initiated on the sixth day after birth. A baseline phase and an intervention phase were performed using an AB design. The oral stimulation intervention was not performed in the baseline phase, as only nonnutritive sucking training using a rubber pacifier was used during the baseline phase. During the intervention phase, nonnutritive sucking training and oral stimulation intervention were simultaneously conducted. After the intervention period, daily oral milk intake and intake per feeding of the subject noticeably increased. The oxygen saturation while feeding rose over 90% on average, and the baby did not present with hypoxia. The oral stimulation intervention provided prior to feeding resulted in highly positive effects, including induced normal development of the baby, stimulation of his transition from the NG feeding tube to bottle feeding, increased oxygen saturation, and a shortened hospital stay.
- A Cognitive Occupation-Based Programme for People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Study to Test Feasibility and Clinical Outcomes. [Journal Article]
- OTOccup Ther Int 2018; 2018:1614901
- Cognitive impairments are common in MS and affect personal, social, and occupational functioning. There is a developing body of evidence highlighting the role of cognitive rehabilitation, but there i...
Cognitive impairments are common in MS and affect personal, social, and occupational functioning. There is a developing body of evidence highlighting the role of cognitive rehabilitation, but there is still no evidence for a validated holistic approach. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Cognitive Occupation-Based Programme for People with Multiple Sclerosis (COB-MS) for improving daily life and cognitive impairment. This study used an experimental pretest/posttest design with eight-week follow-up. Participants were recruited from MS networks using convenience sampling. The primary outcome measure was the GAS. Secondary outcomes included the OSA-DLS, CVLT-II, BVMT-R, SDMT, TMT, BRIEF-A, and EMQ-R. Twelve participants were recruited, aged 39-73 years (mean: 55.08; SD: 9.61). There were statistically significant improvements in the GAS (p < .002), CVLT-II: total free recall (p < .000), short delay free recall (p < .018), long delay free recall (p < .008), BVMT-R total recall (p < .000), TMT part B (p < .044), and EMQ-R (p < .006). Except for the BRIEF-A, clinically significant improvements were observed in secondary outcome measures at posttest and follow-up. Limitations include selection bias and subtle practice effects in cognitive measures. Results suggest that a larger scale study is justified considering improvements seen in daily life and cognitive measures.
- Effect of Community-Based Occupational Therapy on Health-Related Quality of Life and Engagement in Meaningful Activities of Women with Breast Cancer. [Journal Article]
- OTOccup Ther Int 2018; 2018:6798697
- We aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of community-based occupational therapy on health-related quality of life and engagement in meaningful activities among women with breast cancer. An open l...
We aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of community-based occupational therapy on health-related quality of life and engagement in meaningful activities among women with breast cancer. An open label randomized controlled trial study design was applied. The participants were members of various societies of women with cancer. In total, 22 women have participated in the study. Participants of the experimental group (n = 11) participated in a 6-week community-based occupational therapy program and the usual activities of various societies, whereas the control group (n = 11) women participated in the usual activities of the societies only. 1 of the participants withdrew during the course; therefore 21 completed the study successfully. Participants of both groups were assessed for health-related quality of life and the participants of the experimental group were assessed for engagement in meaningful activities. The evaluation was carried out during the nonacute period of the disease-at the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks. Women of the experimental group demonstrated statistically significantly better scores in the global quality of life, role functions, physical, emotional, cognitive, and social functions, fatigue, insomnia, financial impact, systemic therapy side effects, and breast symptoms scales compared to the control group participants (p < 0.05) after the 6 weeks, as measured by the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire and its breast cancer module QLQ-BR23. Furthermore, women of the experimental group demonstrated significant greater engagement in meaningful activities when applying community-based occupational therapy (p < 0.05), as measured by using the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey (EMAS). The evaluation of the associations between the women's engagement in meaningful activities and changes in health-related quality of life showed that greater engagement in meaningful activities was associated with better emotional functions and a lower level of insomnia (p < 0.05). Based on the results of our study, we recommend applying occupational therapy in the field of community healthcare in order to maintain or improve breast cancer patients' health-related quality of life and suggest involving women into meaningful activities during community-based occupational therapy after clarifying which activities are important to them.
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- The Course of Self-Efficacy for Therapeutic Use of Self in Norwegian Occupational Therapy Students: A 10-Month Follow-Up Study. [Journal Article]
- OTOccup Ther Int 2018; 2018:2962747
- CONCLUSIONS: The increased self-efficacy for use of self that was found at 3-month follow-up was maintained at 10-month follow-up. The results indicate that students may experience a boost in self-efficacy for therapeutic use of self after a brief workshop and that these changes can be sustained over time.