- Gene expression effects of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor agonists and antagonists on normal human skeletal muscle. [Journal Article]
- PGPhysiol Genomics 2017 Apr 21; :physiolgenomics.00128.2016
- Mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors are closely related steroid hormone receptors that regulate gene expression through many of the same hormone response elements. However, their transcrip...
Mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors are closely related steroid hormone receptors that regulate gene expression through many of the same hormone response elements. However, their transcriptional activities and effects in skeletal muscles are largely unknown. We recently identified mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in skeletal muscles after finding that combined treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril and MR antagonist spironolactone was therapeutic in Duchenne muscular dystrophy mouse models. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist prednisolone is the current standard-of-care treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy because it prolongs ambulation, likely due to its anti-inflammatory effects. However, data on whether glucocorticoids have a beneficial or detrimental direct effect on skeletal muscle is controversial. Here, we begin to define the gene expression profiles in normal differentiated human skeletal muscle myotubes treated with MR and GR agonists and antagonists. The MR agonist aldosterone and GR agonist prednisolone had highly overlapping gene expression profiles, supporting that prednisolone acts as both a GR and MR agonist that may have detrimental effects on skeletal muscles. Co-incubations with aldosterone plus either non-specific or selective MR antagonists, spironolactone or eplerenone, resulted in similar numbers of gene expression changes, suggesting that both drugs can block MR activation to a similar extent. Eplerenone treatment alone decreased a number of important muscle specific genes. This information may be used to develop biomarkers to monitor clinical efficacy of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists or glucocorticoid receptor agonists in muscular dystrophy, develop a temporally coordinated treatment with both drugs or identify novel therapeutics with more specific downstream targets.
- The role of renal transporters and novel regulatory interactions in the TAL that control blood pressure. [Journal Article]
- PGPhysiol Genomics 2017 Apr 07; :physiolgenomics.00017.2017
- Hypertension (HTN), a major public health issue is currently the leading factor in the global burden of disease, where associated complications account for 9.4 million deaths worldwide every year (98...
Hypertension (HTN), a major public health issue is currently the leading factor in the global burden of disease, where associated complications account for 9.4 million deaths worldwide every year (98). Excessive dietary salt intake is among the environmental factors that contribute to HTN, known as salt sensitivity. The heterogeneity of salt sensitivity and the multiple mechanisms that link high salt intake to increases in blood pressure are of upmost importance for therapeutic application. A continual increase in the kidney's reabsorption of sodium (Na+) relies on sequential actions at various segments along the nephron. When the distal segments of the nephron fail to regulate Na+, the effects on Na+ homeostasis are unfavourable. We propose that the specific nephron region where increased active uptake occurs as a result of variations in Na+ reabsorption is at the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (TAL). The purpose of this review is to urge the consideration of the TAL that contributes to the pathophysiology of salt sensitive HTN. Further research in this area will enable development of a therapeutic application for targeted treatment.
- De novo RNA sequence assembly during in vivo inflammatory stress reveals hundreds of unannotated lincRNAs in human blood CD14+ monocytes and in adipose tissue. [Journal Article]
- PGPhysiol Genomics 2017 Apr 07; :physiolgenomics.00001.2017
- Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of cellular functions and physiology. Yet functional lincRNAs often have low, context-specific and tissue-specific expression....
Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of cellular functions and physiology. Yet functional lincRNAs often have low, context-specific and tissue-specific expression. We hypothesized that many human monocyte and adipose lincRNAs would be absent in current public annotations due to lincRNA tissue specificity, modest sequencing depth in public data, limitations of transcriptome assembly algorithms and lack of dynamic physiological contexts. Deep RNA-seq was performed in peripheral blood CD14+ monocytes (monocytes; average ~247 million reads per sample) and adipose tissue (average ~378 million reads per sample) collected before and after human experimental endotoxemia, an in vivo inflammatory stress, to identify tissue-specific and clinically relevant lincRNAs. Using a stringent filtering pipeline, we identified 109 unannotated lincRNAs in monocytes and 270 unannotated lincRNAs in adipose. Most unannotated lincRNAs are not conserved in rodents and are tissue-specific while many have features of regulated expression and are enriched in transposable elements. Specific subsets have enhancer RNA characteristics or are expressed only during inflammatory stress. A subset of unannotated lincRNAs were validated and replicated for their presence and inflammatory induction in independent human samples and for their monocyte and adipocyte origins. Through interrogation of public genome-wide association data, we also found evidence of specific disease association for selective unannotated lincRNAs. Our findings highlight the critical need to perform deep RNA-seq in a cell-, tissue- and context- specific manner in order to annotate the full repertoire of human lincRNAs for a complete understanding of lincRNA roles in dynamic cell functions and in human disease.
- Cancer Cachexia-Induced Muscle Atrophy: Evidence for Alterations in microRNAs important for Muscle Size. [Journal Article]
- PGPhysiol Genomics 2017 Mar 24; :physiolgenomics.00006.2017
- CONCLUSIONS: These results create a foundation for future research into the sufficiency of targeting these genes to attenuate muscle loss in cancer cachexia.
- Short-term low-magnesium diet reduces autoimmune arthritis severity and synovial tissue gene expression. [Journal Article]
- PGPhysiol Genomics 2017 Apr 01; 49(4):238-242
- Magnesium has been suggested to have anti-inflammatory properties in short-term, mostly in vitro studies. To examine the effect of dietary magnesium modifications in arthritis severity and joint dama...
Magnesium has been suggested to have anti-inflammatory properties in short-term, mostly in vitro studies. To examine the effect of dietary magnesium modifications in arthritis severity and joint damage DA rats were placed on one of three diet regimens before the induction of autoimmune pristane-induced arthritis (PIA): a 4 wk low-magnesium diet, normal diet, and a magnesium-supplemented diet. The diets were switched to a normal diet 14 days after the induction of PIA (typical time of disease onset). Arthritis severity was scored for 38 days, and joints were examined by histology and quantitative PCR for proinflammatory genes. Rats on the low-magnesium diet were significantly and reproducibly protected and had 70% lower median arthritis severity score, with preservation of normal joint histology without erosive changes. Rats on the normal or magnesium-supplemented diets were not protected and developed equally severe and erosive disease. While the dietary modifications were at disease onset (day 14 postinduction), the protective effect of the short-term low-magnesium diet persisted, suggesting a lasting effect on a critical pathogenic pathway. Rats on the low-magnesium diet had significant reduction in synovial tissue expression of IL-6, RORA, and RORC, which are genes required for the development of Th17 T cells. This study revealed a novel role for dietary magnesium in the regulation of autoimmune arthritis and opens new possibilities for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis with short courses of dietary or drug-induced modulations of magnesium levels.
- MiR-146a/b: a family with shared seeds and different roots. [Review]
- PGPhysiol Genomics 2017 Apr 01; 49(4):243-252
- MicroRNAs are small, noncoding, RNAs known for their powerful modulation of molecular processes, making them a major focus for studying pathological mechanisms. The human miR-146 family of microRNAs ...
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding, RNAs known for their powerful modulation of molecular processes, making them a major focus for studying pathological mechanisms. The human miR-146 family of microRNAs consists of two member genes, MIR146A and MIR146B These two microRNAs are located on different chromosomes and exhibit differential regulation in many cases. However, they are nearly identical in sequence, sharing a seed region, and are thus predicted to target the same set of genes. A large proportion of the microRNA (miR)-146 literature focuses on its role in regulating the innate immune response in the context of various pathologies by modulating two widely studied target genes in the toll-like receptor signaling cascade. A growing subset of the literature reports a role of miR-146 in cardiovascular and renal disease, and data suggest there is exciting potential for miR-146 as a diagnostic and therapeutic target. Nevertheless, the published literature is confounded by unclear and imprecise language concerning the specific effects of the two miR-146 family members. The present review will compare the genomic origin and regulation of miR-146a and miR-146b, discuss some approaches to overcome analytical and experimental challenges, and summarize findings in major areas of miR-146 research. Moving forward, careful evaluation of miR-146a/b specificity in analytical and experimental approaches will aid researchers in elucidating the functional relevance of differential regulation of the miR-146 family members in health and disease.
- Blunted transcriptional response to skeletal muscle ischemia in rats with chronic kidney disease: potential role for impaired ischemia-induced angiogenesis. [Journal Article]
- PGPhysiol Genomics 2017 Apr 01; 49(4):230-237
- Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous studies indicated an impairment of ischemia-induced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle of rats ...
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous studies indicated an impairment of ischemia-induced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle of rats with CKD. We performed a systematic comparison of early gene expression in response to ischemia in rats with or without CKD to identify potential molecular mechanisms underlying impaired angiogenesis in CKD. CKD was induced in male rats by 5/6 nephrectomy (SNX); control rats were sham operated (sham). Eight weeks later, ischemia of the right limb was induced by ligation and resection of the femoral artery. Rats were killed 24 h after the onset of ischemia, and RNA was extracted from the musculus soleus of the ischemic and the nonischemic hindlimb. To identify differentially expressed transcripts, we analyzed RNA with Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Genome 230 2.0 Arrays. RT-PCR analysis of selected genes was performed to validate observed changes. Hindlimb ischemia upregulated 239 genes in CKD and 299 genes in control rats (66% overlap), whereas only a few genes were downregulated (14 in CKD and 34 in controls) compared with the nonischemic limb of the same animals. Comparison between the ischemic limbs of CKD and controls revealed downregulation of 65 genes in CKD; 37 of these genes were also among the ischemia-induced genes in controls. Analysis of functional groups (other than angiogenesis) pointed to genes involved in leukocyte recruitment and fatty acid metabolism. Transcript expression profiling points to a relatively small number of differentially expressed genes that may underlie the impaired postischemic angiogenesis in CKD.
- Transcriptomic alterations in the brain of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) developmentally exposed to bisphenol A or ethinyl estradiol. [Journal Article]
- PGPhysiol Genomics 2017 Apr 01; 49(4):201-215
- Developmental exposure of turtles and other reptiles to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE), can stimulate partial to full gonadal sex-revers...
Developmental exposure of turtles and other reptiles to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE), can stimulate partial to full gonadal sex-reversal in males. We have also recently shown that in ovo exposure to either EDC can induce similar sex-dependent behavioral changes typified by improved spatial learning and memory or possibly feminized brain responses. Observed behavioral changes are presumed to be due to BPA- and EE-induced brain transcriptomic alterations during development. To test this hypothesis, we treated painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) at developmental stage 17, incubated at 26°C (male-inducing temperature), with 1) BPA (1 ng/µl), 2) EE (4 ng/µl), or 3) vehicle ethanol (control group). Ten months after hatching and completion of the behavioral tests, juvenile turtles were euthanized, brains were collected and frozen in liquid nitrogen, and RNA was isolated for RNA-Seq analysis. Turtles exposed to BPA clustered separately from EE-exposed and control individuals. More transcripts and gene pathways were altered in BPA vs. EE individuals. The one transcript upregulated in both BPA- and EE-exposed individuals was the mitochondrial-associated gene, ND5, which is involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Early exposure of turtles to BPA increases transcripts linked with ribosomal and mitochondrial functions, especially bioenergetics, which has been previously linked with improved cognitive performance. In summary, even though both BPA and EE resulted in similar behavioral alterations, they diverge in the pattern of neural transcript alterations with early BPA significantly upregulating several genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial activity, and ribosomal function, which could enhance cognitive performance.
- Modeling diseases in multiple mouse strains for precision medicine studies. [Journal Article]
- PGPhysiol Genomics 2017 Mar 01; 49(3):177-179
- The genetic basis of the phenotypic variability observed in patients can be studied in mice by generating disease models through genetic or chemical interventions in many genetic backgrounds where th...
The genetic basis of the phenotypic variability observed in patients can be studied in mice by generating disease models through genetic or chemical interventions in many genetic backgrounds where the clinical phenotypes can be assessed and used for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This is particularly relevant for rare disorders, where patients sharing identical mutations can present with a wide variety of symptoms, but there are not enough number of patients to ensure statistical power of GWAS. Inbred strains are homozygous for each loci, and their single nucleotide polymorphisms catalogs are known and freely available, facilitating the bioinformatics and reducing the costs of the study, since it is not required to genotype every mouse. This kind of approach can be applied to pharmacogenomics studies as well.
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- HLA gene expression is altered in whole blood and placenta from women who later developed preeclampsia. [Journal Article]
- PGPhysiol Genomics 2017 Mar 01; 49(3):193-200
- Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease that significantly contributes to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In this study, we used a non-biased microarray approach to identify dysregulated ge...
Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease that significantly contributes to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In this study, we used a non-biased microarray approach to identify dysregulated genes in maternal whole blood samples which may be associated with the development of preeclampsia. Whole blood samples were obtained at 28 wk of gestation from 5 women who later developed preeclampsia (cases) and 10 matched women with normotensive pregnancies (controls). Placenta samples were obtained from an independent cohort of 19 women with preeclampsia matched with 19 women with normotensive pregnancies. We studied gene expression profiles using Illumina microarray in blood and validated changes in gene expression in whole blood and placenta tissue by qPCR. We found a transcriptional profile differentiating cases from controls; 336 genes were significantly dysregulated in blood from women who developed preeclampsia. Functional annotation of microarray results indicated that most of the genes found to be dysregulated were involved in inflammatory pathways. While general trends were preserved, only HLA-A was validated in whole blood samples from cases using qPCR (2.30- ± 0.9-fold change) whereas in placental tissue HLA-DRB1 expression was found to be significantly increased in samples from women with preeclampsia (5.88- ± 2.24-fold change). We have identified that HLA-A is upregulated in the circulation of women who went on to develop preeclampsia. In placenta of women with preeclampsia we identified that HLA-DRB1 is upregulated. Our data provide further evidence for involvement of the HLA gene family in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.