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Unbound Medicine.
(Progress in retinal and eye research[TA])
750 results
  • Fundus-controlled perimetry (microperimetry): Application as outcome measure in clinical trials. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Oct 03 [Online ahead of print]Pfau M, Jolly JK, … Schmitz-Valckenberg S
  • Fundus-controlled perimetry (FCP, also called 'microperimetry') allows for spatially-resolved mapping of visual sensitivity and measurement of fixation stability, both in clinical practice as well as research. The accurate spatial characterization of visual function enabled by FCP can provide insightful information about disease severity and progression not reflected by best-corrected visual acui…
  • Zinn's zonule. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Sep 25 [Online ahead of print]Bassnett S
  • The Zonule of Zinn, or ciliary zonule, is the elaborate system of extracellular fibers that centers the lens in the eye. In humans, the fibers transmit forces that flatten the lens during the process of disaccommodation, thereby bringing distant objects into focus. Zonular fibers are composed almost entirely of 10-12 nm-wide microfibrils, of which polymerized fibrillin is the most abundant compon…
  • Corneal endothelial dysfunction: Evolving understanding and treatment options. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Sep 22 [Online ahead of print]Price MO, Mehta JS, … Price FW
  • The cornea is exquisitely designed to protect the eye while transmitting and focusing incoming light. Precise control of corneal hydration by the endothelial cell layer that lines the inner surface of the cornea is required for optimal transparency, and endothelial dysfunction or damage can result in corneal edema and visual impairment. Advances in corneal transplantation now allow selective repl…
  • Posterior capsule opacification: What's in the bag? [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Sep 22 [Online ahead of print]Wormstone IM, Wormstone YM, … Eldred JA
  • Cataract, a clouding of the lens, is the most common cause of blindness in the world. It has a marked impact on the wellbeing and productivity of individuals and has a major economic impact on healthcare providers. The only means of treating cataract is by surgical intervention. A modern cataract operation generates a capsular bag, which comprises a proportion of the anterior capsule and the enti…
  • Retinal capillary basement membrane thickening: Role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Sep 17 [Online ahead of print]Roy S, Kim D
  • Vascular basement membrane (BM) thickening has been hailed over half a century as the most prominent histological lesion in diabetic microangiopathy, and represents an early ultrastructural change in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Although vascular complications of DR have been clinically well established, specific cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying dysfunction of small vessels are not well…
  • Digital technology, tele-medicine and artificial intelligence in ophthalmology: A global perspective. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Sep 05 [Online ahead of print]Olivia Li JP, Liu H, … Ting DSW
  • The simultaneous maturation of multiple digital and telecommunications technologies in 2020 has created an unprecedented opportunity for ophthalmology to adapt to new models of care using tele-health supported by digital innovations. These digital innovations include artificial intelligence (AI), 5th generation (5G) telecommunication networks and the Internet of Things (IoT), creating an inter-de…
  • Extraocular, periocular, and intraocular routes for sustained drug delivery for glaucoma. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Sep 04 [Online ahead of print]Kompella UB, Hartman RR, Patil MA
  • Although once daily anti-glaucoma drug therapy is a current clinical reality, most therapies require multiple dosing and there is an unmet need to develop convenient, safe, and effective sustained release drug delivery systems for long-term treatment to improve patient adherence and outcomes. One of the first sustained release drug delivery systems was approved for the reduction of intraocular pr…
  • Retinal changes in Alzheimer's disease- integrated prospects of imaging, functional and molecular advances. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Sep 02 [Online ahead of print]Gupta VB, Chitranshi N, … Gupta V
  • Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, clinically characterised by cognitive deficits that gradually worsen over time. There is, at present, no established cure, or disease-modifying treatments for AD. As life expectancy increases globally, the number of individuals suffering from the disease is projected to increase substantially. Cumulative evidence i…
  • The X-linked retinopathies: Physiological insights, pathogenic mechanisms, phenotypic features and novel therapies. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Aug 26 [Online ahead of print]De Silva SR, Arno G, … Mahroo OA
  • X-linked retinopathies represent a significant proportion of monogenic retinal disease. They include progressive and stationary conditions, with and without syndromic features. Many are X-linked recessive, but several exhibit a phenotype in female carriers, which can help establish diagnosis and yield insights into disease mechanisms. The presence of affected carriers can misleadingly suggest aut…
  • Normal and glaucomatous outflow regulation. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Aug 11 [Online ahead of print]Acott TS, Vranka JA, … Kelley MJ
  • Glaucoma remains only partially understood, particularly at the level of intraocular pressure (IOP) regulation. Trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal inner wall endothelium (SCE) are key to IOP regulation and their characteristics and behavior are the focus of much investigation. This is becoming more apparent with time. We and others have studied the TM and SCE's extracellular matrix (ECM…
  • Paracentral acute middle maculopathy and the organization of the retinal capillary plexuses. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Aug 09 [Online ahead of print]Scharf J, Freund KB, … Sarraf D
  • The retinal capillary vasculature serves the formidable role of supplying the metabolically active inner and middle retina. In the parafoveal region, the retinal capillary plexuses (RCP) are organized in a system of three capillary layers of varying retinal depths: the superficial capillary plexus (SCP), intermediate capillary plexus (ICP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP). While the dynamic flow t…
  • Role of glia in optic nerve. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Aug 06 [Online ahead of print]Yazdankhah M, Shang P, … Stepicheva NA
  • Glial cells are critically important for maintenance of neuronal activity in the central nervous system (CNS), including the optic nerve (ON). However, the ON has several unique characteristics, such as an extremely high myelination level of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons throughout the length of the nerve (with virtually all fibers myelinated by 7 months of age in humans), lack of synapses an…
  • Fundus autofluorescence imaging. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Aug 03 [Online ahead of print]Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Pfau M, … Holz FG
  • Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging is an in vivo imaging method that allows for topographic mapping of naturally or pathologically occurring intrinsic fluorophores of the ocular fundus. The dominant sources are fluorophores accumulating as lipofuscin in lysosomal storage bodies in postmitotic retinal pigment epithelium cells as well as other fluorophores that may occur with disease in the oute…
  • Corneal xenotransplantation: Where are we standing? [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Aug 02 [Online ahead of print]Yoon CH, Choi HJ, Kim MK
  • The search for alternatives to allotransplants is driven by the shortage of corneal donors and is demanding because of the limitations of the alternatives. Indeed, current progress in genetically engineered (GE) pigs, the introduction of gene-editing technology by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9, and advanced immunosuppressants have made xenotransplantation…
  • TCF4-mediated Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy: Insights into a common trinucleotide repeat-associated disease. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Jul 28 [Online ahead of print]Fautsch MP, Wieben ED, … Davidson AE
  • Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is a common cause for heritable visual loss in the elderly. Since the first description of an association between FECD and common polymorphisms situated within the transcription factor 4 (TCF4) gene, genetic and molecular studies have implicated an intronic CTG trinucleotide repeat (CTG18.1) expansion as a causal variant in the majority of FECD patients.…
  • Retina in a dish: Cell cultures, retinal explants and animal models for common diseases of the retina. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Jul 25 [Online ahead of print]Schnichels S, Paquet-Durand F, … Klettner A
  • For many retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy (DR), the exact pathogenesis is still unclear. Moreover, the currently available therapeutic options are often unsatisfactory. Research designed to remedy this situation heavily relies on experimental animals. However, animal models often do not faithfully reproduce human disease and, c…
  • Non-specific orbital inflammation: Current understanding and unmet needs. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Jul 24 [Online ahead of print]Lee MJ, Planck SR, … Rosenbaum JT
  • Non-specific orbital inflammation (NSOI) is a noninfectious inflammatory condition of the orbit. Although it is generally considered the most common diagnosis derived from an orbital biopsy, it is a diagnosis of exclusion, meaning that the diagnosis requires exclusion of a systemic process or another identifiable etiology of orbital inflammation. The clinical diagnosis of NSOI is ill-defined, but…
  • Plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the eye. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Jul 24 [Online ahead of print]Jamali A, Kenyon B, … Hamrah P
  • Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a unique subpopulation of immune cells, distinct from classical dendritic cells. pDCs are generated in the bone marrow and following development, they typically home to secondary lymphoid tissues. While peripheral tissues are generally devoid of pDCs during steady state, few tissues, including the lung, kidney, vagina, and in particular ocular tissues harbo…
  • Pathogenesis of ocular toxoplasmosis. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Jul 24 [Online ahead of print]Smith JR, Ashander LM, … Furtado JM
  • Ocular toxoplasmosis is a retinitis -almost always accompanied by vitritis and choroiditis- caused by intraocular infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Depending on retinal location, this condition may cause substantial vision impairment. T. gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, with both sexual and asexual life cycles, and infection is typically contracted orally by consuming encys…
  • Retinal energy metabolism in health and glaucoma. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Jul 23 [Online ahead of print]Casson RJ, Chidlow G, … Wood JPM
  • Energy metabolism refers to the processes by which life transfers energy to do cellular work. The retina's relatively large energy demands make it vulnerable to energy insufficiency. In addition, evolutionary pressures to optimize human vision have been traded against retinal ganglion cell bioenergetic fragility. Details of the metabolic profiles of the different retinal cells remain poorly under…
  • Discovery and clinical translation of novel glaucoma biomarkers. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Jul 10 [Online ahead of print]Beykin G, Norcia AM, … Goldberg JL
  • Glaucoma and other optic neuropathies are characterized by progressive dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Given the high prevalence of glaucoma-related blindness and the availability of treatment options, improving the diagnosis and precise monitoring of progression in these conditions is paramount. Here we review recent progress in the development of novel biomarkers…
  • Personalising surgical treatments for glaucoma patients. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Jun 18 [Online ahead of print]Sunaric Megevand G, Bron AM
  • Surgical treatments for glaucoma have relied for decades on traditional filtering surgery such as trabeculectomy and, in more challenging cases, tubes. Antifibrotics were introduced to improve surgical success in patients at increased risk of failure but have been shown to be linked to a greater incidence of complications, some being potentially vision-threatening. As our understanding of glaucom…
  • Splicing mutations in inherited retinal diseases. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Jun 15 [Online ahead of print]Weisschuh N, Buena-Atienza E, Wissinger B
  • Mutations which induce aberrant transcript splicing represent a distinct class of disease-causing genetic variants in retinal disease genes. Such mutations may either weaken or erase regular splice sites or create novel splice sites which alter exon recognition. While mutations affecting the canonical GU-AG dinucleotides at the splice donor and splice acceptor site are highly predictive to cause …
  • Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy: The vicious cycle of Fuchs pathogenesis. [Journal Article]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 May 08 [Online ahead of print]Ong Tone S, Kocaba V, … Jurkunas UV
  • Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is the most common primary corneal endothelial dystrophy and the leading indication for corneal transplantation worldwide. FECD is characterized by the progressive decline of corneal endothelial cells (CECs) and the formation of extracellular matrix (ECM) excrescences in Descemet's membrane (DM), called guttae, that lead to corneal edema and loss of visi…
  • Activation of the interleukin-23/interleukin-17 signalling pathway in autoinflammatory and autoimmune uveitis. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 May 16 [Online ahead of print]Zhong Z, Su G, … Yang P
  • Uveitis is a group of diseases characterized by intraocular inflammation, of which some are driven by autoinflammatory or autoimmune responses, such as Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, Behçet's disease, uveitis associated with spondyloarthritis, ocular sarcoidosis, sympathetic ophthalmia and birdshot chorioretinopathy. These entities have various clinical forms, but genetic and biomarker data sugges…
  • Central serous chorioretinopathy: An update on risk factors, pathophysiology and imaging modalities. [Review]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 May 11 [Online ahead of print]Kaye R, Chandra S, … Lotery A
  • Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a common form of vision loss, typically seen in working-age men. The pathophysiology behind CSC still eludes us, however significant advances have been made in understanding this disease over the last decade using information from genetic and cell-based studies and imaging modalities. This review aims to give an overview of the current pathophysiology hyp…
  • Molecular components affecting ocular carotenoid and retinoid homeostasis. [Journal Article]
    Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Apr 25 [Online ahead of print]von Lintig J, Moon J, Babino D
  • The photochemistry of vision employs opsins and geometric isomerization of their covalently bound retinylidine chromophores. In different animal classes, these light receptors associate with distinct G proteins that either hyperpolarize or depolarize photoreceptor membranes. Vertebrates also use the acidic form of chromophore, retinoic acid, as the ligand of nuclear hormone receptors that orchest…
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