- Psychooncology in Poland. [Review]
- PPPsychiatr Pol 2016 Oct 31; 50(5):1065-1073
- Psycho-oncology is an interdisciplinary field of medicine that deals with the psychological aspects of cancer. Psycho-oncology is a sub-discipline of clinical oncology, psychiatry, clinical psycholog...
Psycho-oncology is an interdisciplinary field of medicine that deals with the psychological aspects of cancer. Psycho-oncology is a sub-discipline of clinical oncology, psychiatry, clinical psychology and health psychology. It was formally established in 1975. In Poland, the Polish Psycho-Oncology Association deals with the issues of psycho-oncology since 1992. Despite the dynamic development of psycho-oncology, in Poland psychological help for people with cancer covered under the health insurance is not sufficient. The main tasks facing the Polish psycho-oncology is: to define psycho-oncologist profession and to make it administratively independent profession, to identify psycho-oncological benefits under the health insurance and to determine standards of psycho-oncological care in the National Program of Cancer Prevention.
- Child molesters' cognitive distortions. Conceptualizations of the term. [Review]
- PPPsychiatr Pol 2016 Oct 31; 50(5):1053-1063
- The concept of cognitive distortion was created by A. T. Beck and it is one of the key-concepts of cognitive psychotherapy. In the 80s of the twentieth century, researchers began to use it in studies...
The concept of cognitive distortion was created by A. T. Beck and it is one of the key-concepts of cognitive psychotherapy. In the 80s of the twentieth century, researchers began to use it in studies of sexual offending, but with reference to the social learning theory rather than to the theory of cognitive psychotherapy. Subsequent authors continued the use of this term in the determinants of child molestation and defined them as products emerging from specific implicit theory of the offender, the judgements resulting from his beliefs, values and actions, dysfunctional cognitive schemas, deviant cognitive practices undertaken in the interaction of internal and external components of perpetrator's cognitive system and his social practices. The primary theoretical background in the description of the concept of cognitive distortions of child molesters was the social cognition theory, but it was complemented with the assumptions of the theory of cognitive psychotherapy, extended theory of mind and discursive psychology perspective. Particular concepts describe the cognitive distortions relating them to different classes of cognitive phenomena: products, processes and structures, and the only thing they have in common is their incompatibility of their content to the social norms. Giving this concept a normative nature leads to internal contradictions within the conceptions that concern it. Moreover, using it to explain the various processes oversimplifies the picture of this phenomenon and leads to contradictions between theories. It is, therefore, necessary to consider replacing the term cognitive distortions with alternative and more precise concepts.
- Is the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test better suited than the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) detection among people aged over 60? Meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- PPPsychiatr Pol 2016 Oct 31; 50(5):1039-1052
- CONCLUSIONS: MoCA test better meets the criteria for screening tests for the detection of MCI among patients over 60 years of age than MMSE.
- The functionality of masticatory apparatus and the sense of depression in patients over 55 years of age living in a family environment and social care centres. [Journal Article]
- PPPsychiatr Pol 2016 Oct 31; 50(5):1027-1038
- CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a sense of depression living in Social Care Centres were more likely to report lack of functionality of masticatory apparatus than patients with a sense of depression living in family houses. The presence of a growing sense of depression significantly affected a lower rate of preserved functionality of masticatory apparatus or vice versa.
- The efficacy and safety of ECT in population before and after 60 years of age. [Journal Article]
- PPPsychiatr Pol 2016 Oct 31; 50(5):1015-1026
- CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of ECT in elderly was similar as in younger age group. The tolerance was slightly worse in patients aged over 60 years than in younger patients. The biggest problem in the elderly was not cognitive impairment, but the cardiovascular complications.
- Mental states in early and late old age patients and their expectations of their physicians. [Journal Article]
- PPPsychiatr Pol 2016 Oct 31; 50(5):1001-1014
- CONCLUSIONS: The research findings show the need for systematic assessment of mental state of patients attending medical consultations. Mental state and somatic symptoms intensity are essential indicators of patients' expectations of medical doctors.
- Negative experiences in childhood and the development and course of bipolar disorder. [Review]
- PPPsychiatr Pol 2016 Oct 31; 50(5):989-1000
- The aim of this paper is to review the effects of negative childhood experiences on the development and course of bipolar disorder (BD) and to discuss the involved mechanisms. The negative childhood ...
The aim of this paper is to review the effects of negative childhood experiences on the development and course of bipolar disorder (BD) and to discuss the involved mechanisms. The negative childhood experiences that may play a role in BD are critical or traumatic events including all kinds of abuse, loss of a parent or parents resulting from death, suicide, separation, divorce or prolonged separation. Previous studies indicate that in BD patients negative childhood events are more frequent than in control group. In BD patients these events are associated with an earlier onset and more severe course of the illness, including more frequent relapses, suicidal behavior, substance abuse and somatic diseases. This paper presents the possibility of the specific impact of individual events on the clinical outcome of BD. Mechanisms explaining the impact of negative childhood events on the development and course of BD include the interaction between biological predisposition and stress factors, the concept of kindling and activation of negative cognitive schemas. Early negative experiences cause a modification of the expression of the mediators of stress and neurotransmitters in certain areas of the brain. The interaction of these mediators with the development of neural networks may lead to long-lasting structural and functional changes. Molecular genetic studies indicate the possibility of interactions between environmental factors (stress) and the polymorphisms of serotonin transporter, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and toll-like receptor (TLR2). It has also been hypothesized that childhood experiences affect DNA methylation, acting as a form of molecular memory and modifying brain activity over the next decade.
- Personality traits in alcohol-dependent individuals in the context of childhood abuse. [Journal Article]
- PPPsychiatr Pol 2016 Oct 31; 50(5):973-987
- CONCLUSIONS: The higher severity of childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse in alcoholics is associated with those personality traits that seem to be crucial for maintaining abstinence and the quality of cooperation in therapy.
- Autobiographical memory and its meaning in selected mental disorders. [Review]
- PPPsychiatr Pol 2016 Oct 31; 50(5):959-972
- This paper presents the general characteristics of the phenomenon of autobiographical memory (AM), the current knowledge of the subject and describes hitherto identified distortions of AM in mental d...
This paper presents the general characteristics of the phenomenon of autobiographical memory (AM), the current knowledge of the subject and describes hitherto identified distortions of AM in mental disorders.AM is the part of memory concerning the personal past of an individual. It includes episodic and semantic memories associated with an identity. It affects an activity and structuring of goals, it is set in human experience and emotions and it helps in creating plans. The evolutionary sig-nificance of AM is probably to facilitate short-term goal-oriented behaviors by comparing them with the previous ones. People with AM disorders often have difficulties in social functioning.The disorders of emotional life and affect, which are present in most psychiatric disorders, deform AM. It was confirmed, inter alia, in post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, autism, schizophrenia, and alcohol dependence syndrome. Overgeneral memories (the inability to recall memories that are fully filled with details) being typical of depression, and flashbacks (the involuntary recall of memories which are highly filled with visual-sensory content) being characteristic of PTSD are considered one of the most studied deficiency of AM. The study of AM potentially carries many cognitive and clinical implications. It may facilitate the prediction of the onset of a depressive episode in patients at risk; it can also help to develop psychotherapeutic techniques which are helpful in its treatment, which has in part already taken place. Few studies relate to neurofunctional changes in AM and they need a follow-up.
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- Post-War Research on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Part II - 1989 onwards. [Review]
- PPPsychiatr Pol 2016 Oct 31; 50(5):945-958
- The paper illustrates the research on post-traumatic disorders conducted in Kraków at the Department of Psychotherapy and the Department of Psychiatry of the Jagiellonian University Medical College a...
The paper illustrates the research on post-traumatic disorders conducted in Kraków at the Department of Psychotherapy and the Department of Psychiatry of the Jagiellonian University Medical College after 1989. The political changes that occurred in Poland after 1989 allowed the research to be extended with new groups of survivors. Having conducted the research of the former concentration camp prisoners, the study started to be carried out in the two research teams: 1) the former prisoners of the Stalinist period, Siberian deportees, war veterans and others were examined at the former Social Pathology Institute of the Department of Psychiatry, Jagiellonian University Medical College and the work is continued at the Department of Psychotherapy, Jagiellonian University Medical College; 2) at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic the research of the Holocaust survivors and their families has been carried on by the same team up to the present day. The paper outlines the historical background of persecution, its course and a typical impact it had on health of each of the group of survivors. All individuals suffer from widely understood post-traumatic disorders (F43.1 and F62.0). However, differences in the profile of symptoms can be noted. The manner in which the research was organised and its modifications are also presented. The aim of this paper is to familiarise the Reader with the presented concepts and contextualise them in a political and historical dimensions, and in the continuity of the previous research on KZ-Syndrome and war neuroses.