- Effects of acute transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation on emotion recognition in adolescent depression. [Journal Article]Psychol Med 2019; :1-10PM
- CONCLUSIONS: Acute tVNS alters the recognition of briefly presented facial expressions of negative valence in adolescents with MDD while generally increasing emotion recognition in controls. tVNS seems to specifically alter early visual processing of stimuli of negative emotional valence in MDD. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic benefit of tVNS in adolescent MDD that requires further evaluation within clinical trials.
- Symptom remission at 12-weeks is a strong predictor for long term outcome. [Journal Article]Psychol Med 2019; :1PM
- Genetic analysis of activity, brain and behavioral associations in extended families with heavy genetic loading for bipolar disorder. [Journal Article]
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that increased physical activity and more adequate sleep are associated with increased brain size, better cognitive function and more stable temperament in BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives. Additionally, we found evidence for pleiotropy of several actigraphy-behavior and actigraphy-brain phenotypes, suggesting a shared genetic basis for these traits.
- Testing the neurodevelopmental, trauma and developmental risk factor models of psychosis using a naturalistic experiment. [Journal Article]Psychol Med 2019; :1-10PM
- CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to trauma which is experienced more often by neurodevelopmental risk children rather than neurodevelopmental risk per se increases the risk of PE. The findings are consistent with the trauma model and DRFM. Interventions focused on reducing trauma may reduce the development of PE.
- No evidence of associations between genetic liability for schizophrenia and development of cannabis use disorder. [Journal Article]Psychol Med 2019; :1-6PM
- CONCLUSIONS: The PRS for schizophrenia was not associated with CUD in controls or patients with other psychiatric disorders than schizophrenia. This speaks against the hypothesis that shared genetic vulnerability would explain the association between cannabis and schizophrenia.
- Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and risk for offspring early-life psychopathology: the role of genetic and non-genetic mechanisms. [Journal Article]
- CONCLUSIONS: Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and offspring psychopathology symptoms remained after accounting for shared genes, consistent with a small, causal effect. For offspring emotional problems, this effect appeared to increase in importance over time. Our findings imply that treatment of maternal depressive symptoms could also benefit the offspring, and that genetic confounding should be considered in future studies of such mother-offspring associations.
- Antipsychotics as particular types of sedatives. [Journal Article]Psychol Med 2019; :1PM
- Exploring the impact of adolescent exposure to cannabinoids and nicotine on psychiatric risk: insights from translational animal models. [Journal Article]Psychol Med 2019; :1-8PM
- Adolescence represents a highly sensitive period of mammalian neurodevelopment wherein critical synaptic and structural changes are taking place in brain regions involved in cognition, self-regulation and emotional processing. Importantly, neural circuits such as the mesocorticolimbic pathway, comprising the prefrontal cortex, sub-cortical mesolimbic dopamine system and their associated input/out…
Adolescence represents a highly sensitive period of mammalian neurodevelopment wherein critical synaptic and structural changes are taking place in brain regions involved in cognition, self-regulation and emotional processing. Importantly, neural circuits such as the mesocorticolimbic pathway, comprising the prefrontal cortex, sub-cortical mesolimbic dopamine system and their associated input/output centres, are particularly vulnerable to drug-related insults. Human adolescence represents a life-period wherein many individuals first begin to experiment with recreational drugs such as nicotine and cannabis, both of which are known to profoundly modulate neurochemical signalling within the mesocorticolimbic pathway and to influence both long-term and acute neuropsychiatric symptoms. While a vast body of epidemiological clinical research has highlighted the effects of adolescent exposure to drugs such as nicotine and cannabis on the developing adolescent brain, many of these studies are limited to correlative analyses and rely on retrospective self-reports from subjects, making causal interpretations difficult to discern. The use of pre-clinical animal studies can avoid these issues by allowing for precise temporal and dose-related experimental control over drug exposure during adolescence. In addition, such animal-based research has the added advantage of allowing for in-depth molecular, pharmacological, genetic and neuronal analyses of how recreational drug exposure may set up the brain for neuropsychiatric risk. This review will explore some of the advantages and disadvantages of these models, with a focus on the common, divergent and synergistic effects of adolescent nicotine and cannabis exposure on neuropsychiatric risk.
- Letter to Editor: Maternal depression and inflammation during pregnancy. [Journal Article]Psychol Med 2019; :1-2PM
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- Psychological networks in clinical populations: investigating the consequences of Berkson's bias. [Journal Article]
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that Berkson's bias is a considerable and underappreciated problem in the clinical network literature. Furthermore, we discuss potential solutions to circumvent Berkson's bias and their pitfalls.