- Hippocampal Calcifications: Risk Factors and Association with Cognitive Function. [Journal Article]
- RRadiology 2018 Jun 12; :172588
- Purpose To identify risk factors for hippocampal calcifications and to investigate the association between hippocampal calcifications and cognitive function. Materials and Methods For this retrospect...
Purpose To identify risk factors for hippocampal calcifications and to investigate the association between hippocampal calcifications and cognitive function. Materials and Methods For this retrospective study, consecutive patients visiting a memory clinic at a Dutch general hospital between April 2009 and April 2015 were identified. All individuals underwent a standard diagnostic work-up including cognitive tests and brain CT. The following vascular risk factors were assessed: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and smoking. Cognitive screening consisted of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination, which includes the Mini-Mental State Examination. CT scans were analyzed for the presence and severity (absent, mild, moderate, severe) of hippocampal calcifications. One measure per patient, only the most severe score, was used. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for hippocampal calcifications, and linear regression was used for the association between hippocampal calcifications (patient level) and cognitive function. Results A total of 1991 patients (mean age, 78 years; range, 45-96 years) were included. The mean age of women was 79 years (range, 47-96 years), and the mean age of men was 77 years (range, 45-95 years). Of the 1991 patients, 380 (19.1%) had hippocampal calcifications. Older age (odds ratio [OR] per year, 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03, 1.06), diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.50; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.00), and smoking (OR, 1.49; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.10) were associated with the presence of hippocampal calcifications. No associations were found between presence and severity of hippocampal calcifications and cognitive function. Conclusion Older age, diabetes mellitus, and smoking were associated with an increased risk of hippocampal calcifications. A greater degree of hippocampal calcifications was not associated with lower cognitive function in patients with memory complaints.
- Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Feasibility of Intratumoral Radiofrequency Hyperthermia-enhanced Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Gene Therapy. [Journal Article]
- RRadiology 2018 Jun 12; :172148
- Purpose To validate the feasibility and efficacy of intratumoral radiofrequency hyperthermia (RFH)-enhanced herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase (TK) and ganciclovir (GCV) (hereafter, HSV-TK/G...
Purpose To validate the feasibility and efficacy of intratumoral radiofrequency hyperthermia (RFH)-enhanced herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase (TK) and ganciclovir (GCV) (hereafter, HSV-TK/GCV) gene therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods This study was performed from November 11, 2015, to April 14, 2017, and included (a) in vitro experiments with human NSCLC cells to establish the proof of principle, (b) in vivo experiments using mice with subcutaneous NSCLC to further demonstrate the principle, and (c) in vivo experiments using rats with orthotopic NSCLC to validate the technical feasibility. Cells, nude mice, and nude rats were randomly divided into four groups (six animals per group): (a) combination therapy (HSV-TK/GCV combined with RFH), (b) RFH, (c) HSV-TK/GCV, and (d) phosphate-buffered saline. Data were analyzed by using the Dunnett t test or Kruskal-Wallis test. Results For in vitro experiments, the cell proliferation assay showed significantly diminished viable cells with combination therapy (mean, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44, 0.68) versus RFH (mean, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.97), HSV-TK/GCV (mean, 0.71; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.86), and phosphate-buffered saline (mean, 1; 95% CI: 1, 1) (P < .05 for all). For in vivo experiments, optical imaging showed significantly decreased relative bioluminescence signal with combination therapy (mean, 0.71 [95% CI: 0.03, 1.39] in mice; 1.29 [95% CI: 0.51, 2.06] in rats) compared with RFH (mean, 2.66 [95% CI: 1.73, 3.59] in mice; 2.26 [95% CI: 1.51, 3.01] in rats), HSV-TK/GCV (mean, 1.37 [95% CI: 0.65, 2.08] in mice; 1.76 [95% CI: 1.20, 2.31] in rats), and phosphate-buffered saline (mean, 3.07 [95% CI: 2.50, 3.65] in mice; 2.94 [95% CI: 2.29, 3.58] in rats) (P < .001 for all). US showed that the smallest relative tumor volumes occurred with combination therapy (mean, 0.60; 95% CI: 0.15, 1.05) versus RFH (mean, 2.43; 95% CI: 1.80, 3.06), HSV-TK/GCV (mean, 1.32; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.89), and phosphate-buffered saline (mean, 2.56; 95% CI: 1.75, 3.38) (P < .05 for all) in the mouse subcutaneous model. Conclusion Intratumoral radiofrequency hyperthermia-enhanced herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase and ganciclovir gene therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer is feasible and can be guided by molecular imaging. © RSNA, 2018.
- Is CT Useful as a First-line Investigation in Colonic Diverticular Bleeding? [Journal Article]
- RRadiology 2017 Jun 12; :180643
- The Powerful Benefit of Endovascular Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Driving Major Changes in Stroke Systems of Care and Imaging Triage. [Journal Article]
- RRadiology 2018 Jun 07; :180641
- Head and Neck Tumors: Amide Proton Transfer MRI. [Journal Article]
- RRadiology 2018 Jun 12; :171528
- Purpose To evaluate the utility of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging in the characterization of head and neck tumors. Materials and Methods This retrospective study of APT imaging included 117 pati...
Purpose To evaluate the utility of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging in the characterization of head and neck tumors. Materials and Methods This retrospective study of APT imaging included 117 patients with 70 nasopharyngeal undifferentiated carcinomas (NUCs), 26 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), eight non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), and 13 benign salivary gland tumors (BSGTs). Normal tissues were examined in 25 patients. The APT means of malignant tumors, normal tissues, and benign tumors were calculated and compared with the Student t test and analysis of variance. The added value of the mean APT to the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for differentiating malignant and benign tumors was evaluated by using receiver operating characteristic analysis and integrated discrimination index. Results The mean APT of malignant tumors (2.40% ± 0.97 [standard deviation]) was significantly higher than that of brain tissue (1.13% ± 0.43), muscle tissue (0.23% ± 0.73), and benign tumors (1.32% ± 1.20) (P < .001). There were no differences between malignant groups (NUC, 2.37% ± 0.90; SCC, 2.41% ± 1.16; NHL, 2.65% ± 0.89; P = .45 to P = .86). The mean ADC of malignant tumors ([0.85 ± 0.17] × 10-3 mm2/sec) was significantly lower than that of benign tumors ([1.46 ± 0.47] × 10-3 mm2/sec) (P = .001). Adding APT to ADC increased the area under the curve from 0.87 to 0.96, with an integrated discrimination index of 7.6% (P = .13). Conclusion These preliminary data demonstrate differences in amide proton transfer (APT) mean of malignant tumors, normal tissues, and benign tumors, although APT mean could not be used to differentiate between malignant tumor groups. APT imaging has the potential to be of added value to apparent diffusion coefficient in differentiating malignant from benign tumors.
- Changes in Brain Metabolite Concentrations after Neonatal Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy. [Journal Article]
- RRadiology 2018 Jun 12; :172083
- Purpose To investigate the time-course changes and predictive utility of brain metabolite concentrations in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Materials and Methods Sixty-eight neonates ...
Purpose To investigate the time-course changes and predictive utility of brain metabolite concentrations in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Materials and Methods Sixty-eight neonates (age, 35-41 gestational weeks) with HIE were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit between September 2009 and March 2016 and examined by using proton MR spectroscopy at 18-96 hours (n = 25) and 7-14 days (n = 64) after birth (35-43 postmenstrual weeks) to estimate metabolite concentrations in the deep gray matter. Adverse outcome was defined as death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18-22 months of age. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated to evaluate the prognostic values of metabolites. Results At 18-96 hours, N-acetylaspartate and creatine concentrations were lower, whereas lactate, and glutamate and glutamine (Glx) concentrations were higher in neonates with adverse outcomes than in those with favorable outcomes. Metabolite concentrations at 18-96 hours decreased during days 7-14 in neonates with adverse outcomes but did not change in those with favorable outcomes. For N-acetylaspartate, creatine, lactate, and Glx concentrations measured at 18-96 hours to predict adverse outcomes, areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.98, 0.89, 0.96, and 0.88, respectively, whereas at 7-14 days, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.97, 0.97, 0.59, and 0.36, respectively. Conclusion Time-dependent reductions in N-acetylaspartate and creatine concentrations at both 18-96 hours and 7-14 days accurately predicted adverse outcomes. However, higher lactate and glutamate and glutamine concentrations were often transient.
- Can Amide Proton Transfer MRI Distinguish Benign and Malignant Head and Neck Tumors? [Journal Article]
- RRadiology 2018 Jun 12; :180914
- Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Children and Young Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease. [Journal Article]
- RRadiology 2018 Jun 12; :171339
- Purpose To investigate the pathophysiologic effects of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on brain function in children with CKD by correlating cerebral blood flow (CBF) with clinical and behavioral indexe...
Purpose To investigate the pathophysiologic effects of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on brain function in children with CKD by correlating cerebral blood flow (CBF) with clinical and behavioral indexes. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 73 pediatric patients with CKD (mean age, 15.80 years ± 3.63; range, 9-25 years) and 57 control subjects (mean age, 15.65 years ± 3.76; range, 9-25 years) were recruited. CBF measurements were acquired with an MRI arterial spin labeling scheme. Neurocognitive measurements were performed with traditional and computerized neurocognitive batteries. Clinical data were also collected. Group-level global and regional CBF differences between patients with CKD and control subjects were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations among regional CBF, clinical variables, and cognitive performance. Results Patients with CKD showed higher global CBF compared with control subjects that was attributable to reduced hematocrit level (mean, 60.2 mL/100 g/min ± 9.0 vs 56.5 mL/100 g/min ± 8.0, respectively). White matter CBF showed correlation with blood pressure (r = 0.244, P = .039), a finding suggestive of altered cerebrovascular autoregulation. Regional CBF differences between patients and control subjects included regions in the "default mode" network. In patients with CKD, positive extrema in the precuneus showed a strong correlation with executive function (ρ = 0.608, P = .001). Conclusion Systemic effects of estimated glomerular filtration rate, hematocrit level, and blood pressure on CBF and alterations in regional CBF may reflect impaired brain function underlying neurocognitive symptoms in CKD. These findings further characterize the nature of alterations in brain physiologic features in children, adolescents, and young adults with CKD.
- Contrast-enhanced CT for Colonic Diverticular Bleeding before Colonoscopy: A Prospective Multicenter Study. [Journal Article]
- RRadiology 2018 Jun 12; :172910
- Purpose To demonstrate the usefulness of precolonoscopy intravenous contrast material-enhanced CT for colonic diverticular bleeding (CDB). Materials and Methods A prospective, multicenter, observatio...
Purpose To demonstrate the usefulness of precolonoscopy intravenous contrast material-enhanced CT for colonic diverticular bleeding (CDB). Materials and Methods A prospective, multicenter, observational study was performed. Patients with acute-onset hematochezia who were admitted to hospital were included, and those without CDB were excluded. CT was performed before colonoscopy. A Mann-Whitney U test, χ2 test, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed to determine the accuracy of CT before colonoscopy. Results A total of 442 patients (mean age, 71.2 years; 302 male patients; 68.3% men) were included between January 2014 and December 2015, and 202 patients were diagnosed as having CDB. The positive extravasation rate during CT was 50 of 202 (24.7%) among all patients and five of nine (55.6%) among patients who underwent CT within 1 hour of the last hematochezia. At multivariable analysis, the interval from the last hematochezia until CT was a predictor of extravasation (beta coefficient, -.0038 ± 0.0014 [standard deviation]). Extravasation at CT had a sensitivity of 38 of 66 (57.6%; 95% confidence interval: 44.8%, 69.7%) and a specificity of 124 of 136 (91.2%; 95% confidence interval: 85.1%, 95.4%) for the prediction of stigmata of recent hemorrhage of diverticula during colonoscopy. The sensitivity was higher in patients who underwent CT examination within 4 hours of hematochezia, compared with those examined after 4 hours (64.7% [33 of 51] vs 33.3% [five of 15]; P < .01). Conclusion Extravasation findings for CT with intravenous contrast material had high specificity for the prediction of stigmata of recent hemorrhage of diverticula during colonoscopy, regardless of the timing of the CT examination. Although the sensitivity was relatively low, it was higher when the CT examination was performed within 4 hours after the last hematochezia. Therefore, urgent precolonoscopy CT may contribute to decision making regarding whether an urgent colonoscopy should be performed.
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- Cost-effectiveness of Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review of the Impact of Patient Age. [Journal Article]
- RRadiology 2018 Jun 12; :172886
- Purpose To determine the impact of patient age on the cost-effectiveness of endovascular therapy (EVT) in addition to standard care (SC) in large-vessel-occlusion stroke for patients aged 50 to 100 y...
Purpose To determine the impact of patient age on the cost-effectiveness of endovascular therapy (EVT) in addition to standard care (SC) in large-vessel-occlusion stroke for patients aged 50 to 100 years in the United States. Materials and Methods A decision-analytic Markov model was used to estimate direct and indirect lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Age-dependent input parameters were obtained from the literature. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis for age at index stroke were used. The willingness-to-pay (WTP) was set to thresholds of $50 000, $100 000, and $150 000 per QALY. The study applied a U.S. setting for health care and societal perspectives. Incremental costs and effectiveness were derived from deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Acceptability rates at different WTP thresholds were determined. Results EVT+SC was the dominant strategy in patients aged 50 to 79 years. The highest incremental effectiveness (2.61 QALYs) and cost-savings (health care perspective, $99 555; societal perspective, $146 385) were obtained in 50-year-old patients. In octogenarians (80-89 years), EVT+SC led to incremental QALYs at incremental costs with acceptability rates of more than 85%, more than 99%, and more than 99% at a WTP of $50 000, $100 000, and $150 000 per QALY, respectively. In nonagenarians (90-99 years), acceptability rates at a WTP of $50 000 per QALY dropped but stayed higher than 85% and higher than 95% at thresholds of $100 000 and $150 000 per QALY. Conclusion Using contemporary willingness-to-pay thresholds in the United States, endovascular therapy in addition to standard care reduces lifetime costs for patients up to 79 years of age and is cost-effective for patients aged 80 to 100 years.