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(The Veterinary clinics of North America[TA])
8,032 results
  • Interpretation of Serum Analytes for Nutritional Evaluation. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 19 [Online ahead of print]Sullivan KE, Swanhall A, Livingston S
  • Serum micronutrient analysis can provide insight into diet and clinical assessment, despite the complicated interplay between micronutrients and species idiosyncrasies. Approach serum nutrient analytes with skepticism, before jumping to alter diets or offering supplementation. Utilize across species but know that some exotics have exceptions to typical ranges, such as calcium in rabbits or iron i…
  • Bovine Lameness from the Ground up. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 19 [Online ahead of print]Warner GD
  • Lameness in bulls is a common problem seen by many veterinarians, and the cause can be difficult to determine. Understanding cattle lameness requires experience and complete knowledge of their structural anatomy and handling. This article reviews the common body regions that cause lameness in bulls and discusses their treatment. It also details hoof trimming as a way to manage lameness.
  • Behavior Changes Associated with Metabolic Disease of Dogs and Cats. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 20 [Online ahead of print]Radosta L
  • Like many physical disorders, the clinical signs associated with metabolic diseases affecting thyroid, adrenal, and pancreatic function are reflective of nonspecific changes in behavior. Additionally, patients who have underlying disorders associated with fear, anxiety, stress, conflict, and/or panic may be under treatment with medications that alter basal thyroid, glucose, and cortisol levels. T…
  • The Effects of Fitness Training on Working Dog Behavior: Two Case Studies. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 16 [Online ahead of print]Wilson C, Ebbecke D, … Otto C
  • Working dogs perform complex tasks that require both physical and behavioral soundness. Two case studies demonstrate how fitness training moderated arousal levels, facilitated training, and improved performance measures in different situations. Fitness training can be beneficial when integrated as part of a working dog's training regimen because it can have a significant influence on their overal…
  • Cognitive Changes Associated with Aging and Physical Disease in Dogs and Cats. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 16 [Online ahead of print]Provoost L
  • Behavior changes may indicate primary physical disease or primary behavioral disorders in veterinary patients. It is imperative to recognize that secondary behavioral problems can develop due to medical causes. The incidence of systemic disease increases with age and behavior manifestations can be similar to those expected with cognitive dysfunction syndrome. In this article, we review basic conc…
  • Inflammation and Behavior Changes in Dogs and Cats. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 16 [Online ahead of print]Piotti P, Pierantoni L, … Pirrone F
  • Sickness is a normal response to infections or stress triggered by proinflammatory cytokines that drive local and systemic inflammatory responses. Proinflammatory cytokines act on the brain causing the so called "sickness behavior,"which is thought to improve recovery but can become maladaptive in the long term. Chronic inflammation characterizes many diseases and there is some evidence that dogs…
  • The Interaction Between Behavioral and Physical Health in Rabbits. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 15 [Online ahead of print]Tynes VV
  • Behavioral and physical health are intricately interconnected in most animals, and the rabbit is no different. Medical or physical conditions can lead to anxiety and stress, and anxiety and stress can lead to physical illness. Rabbits are very prone to fear, anxiety, and stress, especially when their husbandry is not appropriate and their environmental and behavioral needs are not met. Any rabbit…
  • Separation-related Problems and Their Interaction with Physical Disease. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 15 [Online ahead of print]Hauser H
  • The condition of separation-related problems (SRPs) is common in companion dogs and clinicians should be comfortable diagnosing it. There are numerous diagnoses related to physical disease that have clinical signs similar to SRP, that exacerbate SRP, or may cause regression in treatment of SRP. Common examples include conditions affecting the following systems: musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastro…
  • Cantharidin. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2023 Sep 15 [Online ahead of print]Bischoff K
  • Cantharidin is the toxic component of blister beetles of the genus Epicauta. Cantharidin is a potent vesicant which causes blisters, erosions, and ulcerations in the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, and can cause myocardial necrosis. Blister beetles are found over most of North America and specifically contaminate alfalfa at harvest. History of alfalfa feeding, with colic, dysuria, hypocalcem…
  • Snake Envenomation. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2023 Sep 14 [Online ahead of print]Gilliam LL
  • Snakebite envenomation (SBE) in horses can have devastating outcomes. Tissue damage, cardiotoxicity, coagulopathy, and neurotoxicity can be concerns with SBE. Understanding the actions of venom components is important in developing a successful treatment plan. Antivenom is the mainstay of treatment. Long-term deleterious effects can occur including cardiac dysfunction and lameness.
  • The Relationship Between Aggression and Physical Disease in Dogs. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 13 [Online ahead of print]Amat M, Le Brech S, Manteca X
  • Aggression is a very common behavioral problem in dogs. Although aggression can be part of the normal behavior of dogs, medical conditions can either trigger aggression as in the case of intracranial tumors or aggravate an existing aggression problem as it happens with painful conditions. Therefore, it is essential to include an assessment of physical health in the diagnostic protocol of canine a…
  • An Update on Companion Inland Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps) Nutrition. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 13 [Online ahead of print]Barboza T, Bercier M
  • Evidence-based recommendations for the amount, type, and frequency of food items and supplements are lacking for bearded dragons. General recommendations based on ecological data, a few studies, and experts in the field are to: provide at least 50% high-fiber plant matter dusted in pure calcium and less than 50% adult and lower fat larval insects gut loaded with an 8% calcium diet and dusted with…
  • Assisted Enteral Feeding of Exotic Companion Animals. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 13 [Online ahead of print]Leung YB
  • Malnutrition is a known concern during hospitalization for humans, dogs, and cats. The same nutrition principals to reduce the risk of malnutrition can be applied to exotic companion animal patients. However, it's important to understand that many nutritional requirements are ill defined for specific species and prudent clinical judgment is required.
  • Impact of Sire on Embryo Development and Pregnancy. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 11 [Online ahead of print]Ortega MS, Lockhart KN, Spencer TE
  • The use of in vitro embryo production (IVP) has increased globally, particularly in the United States. Although maternal factors influencing embryo development have been extensively studied, the influence of the sire is not well understood. Sperm plays a crucial role in embryo development providing DNA, triggering oocyte maturation, and aiding in mitosis. Current sire fertility measurements do no…
  • Ionophores. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2023 Sep 09 [Online ahead of print]Fritz SA, Hall JO
  • Ionophores are a class of polyether antibiotics that are commonly used as anticoccidial agents and growth promotants in ruminant diets. Ionophores transport ions across lipid membranes and down concentration gradients, which results in mitochondrial destruction, reduced cellular energy production, and ultimately cell death. Cardiomyocytes are the primary target in equine patients when exposed to …
  • Trace Mineral Supplementation for Beef Cows: Dry Range Environment. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 06 [Online ahead of print]Sager B, Van Saun RJ
  • Range mineral supplementation is based on providing trace minerals not adequately provided from grazed forage in meeting beef cattle needs throughout life cycle stages. Supplementation programs should be developed with consideration of ranch production goals, economics, and practicality for implementation. Factors such as season of grazing, forage analysis, water analysis including antagonistic e…
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases of Bulls. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 06 [Online ahead of print]Jones AL
  • Reproduction is essential for successful cow-calf and dairy production and the most important economic trait for cow-calf producers. For efficient reproduction to occur in beef herds, cows or heifers must conceive early during the breeding season, maintain the pregnancy, calve unassisted or with very little assistance, rebred in a timely manner and wean a calf every year. In the case of dairy cat…
  • Considerations for Using Natural Service with Estrous Synchronization Programs. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 06 [Online ahead of print]Perry GA
  • Estrous synchronization, coupled with natural service, provides the benefit of female cows conceiving early, but there are an increased number of females expressing estrus in a short period of time. Thus, considerations need to be made for the bull. Select a protocol that will distribute estrus over a longer period of time and ensure bulls pass a breeding soundness examination. Mature bulls (3 ye…
  • Implementing Fixed-Time Artificial Insemination Programs in Beef Herds. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 06 [Online ahead of print]Mercadante VRG, Lamb GC
  • The article discusses the importance of reproductive biotechnologies, including artificial insemination and fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI), in beef cow-calf operations. The use of TAI improves cow-calf productivity and profitability by shortening the breeding season and increasing the number of calves born earlier, resulting in heavier calves at weaning. However, adoption of TAI by beef…
  • Nutrition and Sexual Development in Bulls. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 06 [Online ahead of print]Brito LFC
  • This manuscript provides an overview of the effects of nutrition during different stages of bull sexual development. Nutrition during the prepubertal period can modulate the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator. Increased nutrition results in greater LH secretion, earlier puberty, and greater testicular mass in yearling bulls, whereas low nutrition has opposite effects. Targeting average daily gain …
  • Frozen Bovine Semen Storage, Semen Handling, and Site of Deposition. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 04 [Online ahead of print]Dalton JC
  • Artificial insemination (AI) is an effective strategy to distribute semen from elite sires and improve the genetics of a herd. Commercial studs provide a fertile semen product to their customers. Consequently, the maintenance of sire fertility is dependent upon appropriate semen storage, handing, and site of semen deposition. When retrieving a straw of frozen semen, the cane (and canister contain…
  • Genomics and Dairy Bull Fertility. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 04 [Online ahead of print]Peñagaricano F
  • Current evidence suggests that dairy bull fertility is influenced by genetic factors, and hence, it could be managed and improved by genetic means. There are major mutations that explain about 4% to 8% of the observed differences in conception rate between bulls segregating in most dairy breeds. Research has shown that genomic prediction of bull fertility is possible, and this could be used to ma…
  • Important Factors in Chelonian Nutrition. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 01 [Online ahead of print]Brooks MA
  • Chelonian nutrition is still a young, but very important field of study. This article provides practical feeding advice for tortoises and freshwater and terrestrial turtles. Areas covered include the different feeding ecology of different types of chelonians, their digestive physiology, growth rate, body condition scoring, an overview of what types of diets items can be used in captive diets, and…
  • Veterinary Psychopharmacology. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2023 Aug 28 [Online ahead of print]Dantas LMS, Ogata N
  • The stress response affects the central nervous system and multiple other systems in the body. Chronic mental and behavioral pathologies are associated with inflammation, dysfunctions in the immune response and an increased risk for other chronic inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Psychiatric treatments alleviate fear, stress and anxiety, increase the qualify of life and lifespan for dogs and c…
  • Cat Inappropriate Elimination and its Interaction with Physical Disease. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2023 Aug 28 [Online ahead of print]Learn A, Horwitz D
  • Inappropriate elimination or behavioral periuria/perichezia is likely the most reported feline behavioral problem worldwide. A change in behavior is often one of the early signs of physical disease and in addition can aggravate an existing behavioral response. An initial determination of causation is essential; is it medical or behavioral, or a combination of both? Stress activates both the sympa…
  • Trace Mineral Nutrition of Sheep. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2023 Aug 26 [Online ahead of print]Van Saun RJ
  • Trace mineral nutrition of sheep often focuses on their greater susceptibility to copper toxicosis due to a lesser biliary excretion ability compared with other ruminants. Our understanding of sheep trace mineral requirements has improved for most elements allowing for a factorial approach to determining daily requirement instead of a dietary concentration. Forage trace mineral content is influen…
  • Mini Pig Nutrition and Weight Management. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2023 Aug 23 [Online ahead of print]Huntley NF
  • Mini pigs are engaging, intelligent animals that require different management than other pet species. Published nutrient requirements for production pigs are a good reference, but they must be critically evaluated in the context of pet mini pigs' needs to prioritize longevity and healthy weight. A balanced diet includes a pelleted feed, vegetables, and roughage, with minimal fruit or other treats…
  • An Update on Key Nutritional Factors in Ferret Nutrition. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2023 Aug 23 [Online ahead of print]Iske C
  • It is understood that ferrets are obligate carnivores. Constraints of manufacturing and cost make it difficult to align a single commercial diet to meet all physiological needs of ferrets. Thus, a combination of dietary formats should be offered. Ferret diets should be high in protein and fat and low in carbohydrates. Emphasis should be placed on fat concentrations and protein-to-fat ratios, whic…
  • Insectivore Nutrition - A Review of Current Knowledge. [Review]
    Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2023 Aug 23 [Online ahead of print]Modica BP, Koutsos EA
  • Insectivores are represented in virtually all taxa, although more is known about mammalian and avian insectivore nutrition than for reptiles, amphibia and fish. Establishing nutrient requirements is challenging but recommendations should be based on data from similar taxa, similar GI tract physiology, and known nutritional concerns. In order to provide an appropriate diet for insectivores, consid…
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