Interleukin-6, synthesized by osteoblasts in response to PTH, stimulates osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in vitro, and it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone loss in several clinical situations. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether serum levels of interleukin-6 were increased in patients with renal osteodystrophy, and to investigate the possible relationships between serum interleukin-6 and PTH levels on one hand, and serum interleukin-6 and bone remodeling markers on the other. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), intact PTH, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and carboxyterminal telopeptide of Type 1 collagen (ICTP) were measured in 86 uremic patients. IL-6 (median [range] 16.5 [1.0-430] pg/ml), PTH (279.8 [11-2004] pg/ml), osteocalcin (143.8 [8-921] ng/ml), BAP (20.9 [6-169] U/I) and ICTP (38.8 [1.5-181.5] microg/l) were higher than normal. IL-6 levels correlated with PTH (r= 0.22, p = 0.04) and with ICTP (r = 0.31, p = 0.004). A stronger correlation was found between PTH and circulating bone remodeling markers (r = 0.66 for osteocalcin, r = 0.56 for BAP, and r = 0.39 for ICTP). The correlation between PTH and IL-6 was stronger in those patients (n = 15) with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (r= 0,71, p = 0.003). On the other hand, in the group of patients (n = 41) with PTH lower than 250 pg/ml, there was no correlation between IL-6 and PTH, while IL-6 correlated with ICTP (r = 0.44, p = 0.006). Serum IL-6 correlates with ICTP which suggests that it may mediate bone resorption in renal osteodystrophy.