Meishan and Yorkshire gilts were bred exclusively to Yorkshire and Meishan boars, respectively, resulting in similar Meishan x Yorkshire fetuses gestating in the uteri of both maternal breeds. Gilts of both breeds were slaughtered on d 90 and 110 of gestation, and the weight and volume of each uterine horn was determined. Fetal weights and crown-rump lengths were recorded. A section of the chorioallantoic-endometrial attachment site was collected for each conceptus and evaluated for placental and endometrial vascular density. An intact placenta was recovered for each conceptus and weighed, and its surface area was determined. Fetal weight and crown-rump length increased (P < .001) markedly between d 90 and 110 of gestation in Meishan and in Yorkshire uteri, but they were markedly less (P < .001) in Meishan than in Yorkshire uteri. Placental weight and placental surface area were reduced by 40% in Meishan, compared with Yorkshire, uteri; however, placental size did not increase between d 90 and 110 in either uterine type. Placental vascular density and associated endometrial vascular density were similar (P > .20) for conceptuses in Meishan and Yorkshire uteri on d 90 and 110 of gestation. Additionally, even though the ratio of fetal weight: placental weight (placental efficiency) increased between d 90 and 110, placental efficiency was similar for conceptuses in Meishan and Yorkshire uteri. In a previous study using straightbred Meishan or Yorkshire conceptuses gestated in either a Meishan or Yorkshire uterus, we found Meishan conceptuses had a markedly greater placental efficiency than did Yorkshire conceptuses, regardless of the type of uterus in which they were gestated. These data indicate that uterine type determines conceptus size and conceptus genotype controls placental efficiency.