Seed storage proteins of Japanese wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to identify the alleles for complex gene loci, Glu-A1, Glu-B1, and Glu-D1, which code for high molecular weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin in Japanese hexaploid wheat varieties. These were identified by comparison of subunit mobility with those previously found in hexaploid wheat. Twenty-four different, major glutenin HMW subunits were identified, and each variety contained three to five subunits. Seventeen different glutenin subunit patterns were observed for 14 alleles in Japanese varieties. A catalog of alleles for the complex gene loci, Glu-A1, Glu-B1, and Glu-D1, that code for HMW subunits of glutenin in hexaploid wheat was compiled. Japanese varieties showed some special allelic variation in glutenin HMW subunits that was different from those in hexaploid wheats of other countries.