Because of the interference by maternal antibody before 1 year of age, the Schwarz strain of measles vaccine, which has been routinely used in Taiwan, must be given at 9 months and 15 months of age to ensure an optimal immune response. The AIK-C strain of measles vaccine has been reported to be highly immunogenic. This study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of the AIK-C vaccine in 9-month-old Taiwanese infants. A total of 135 infants were recruited and were randomly assigned to receive either Schwarz vaccine (68 cases) or AIK-C vaccine (67 cases). Measles antibodies were assayed before and 1 month after the vaccination. Sixty-five (97%) infants who received the AIK-C vaccine seroconverted after the vaccination, whereas the seroconversion rate in those receiving the Schwarz vaccine was 77% (P = 0.001). The incidences of adverse reactions were comparable between the two groups. We conclude that even in 1990s, the failure rate of Schwarz vaccine in 9-month-old infants is still high. The AIK-C vaccine is more immunogenic in infants and its long-term immunogenicity and safety deserve further evaluation.