Nineteen patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with varying levels of viral suppression achieved with antiretroviral therapy were evaluated to determine whether trivalent influenza vaccine activated HIV replication. Humoral immune responses and CD4+ lymphocyte subsets were compared in 5 HIV-uninfected vaccinated subjects. Transient elevations of plasma HIV RNA levels (76-89 copies/mL) appeared within 2 weeks in 3 of 11 patients with <50 copies/mL at baseline. Sustained elevation in HIV plasma RNA was observed in 7 of 8 patients with baseline HIV RNA of >50 copies/mL. HIV DNA decreased in patients with <400 RNA copies/mL at baseline and showed an HIV RNA increase after vaccination (n=8) when compared with 8 patients with <50 copies/mL at baseline who lacked viral response to vaccination. Concurrent decreases in proviral DNA and memory phenotype CD4+ cells in association with increased plasma HIV RNA after vaccination in patients with <400 RNA copies/mL at baseline suggest that in vivo mobilization of the latently infected cell reservoir may occur during potent antiretroviral therapy.