We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), or a combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3; EPA) and 400 mg DHA, for one week and eight women served as unsupplemented controls. Milk samples were collected on days 0, 1 and 7. The fatty acid composition of the milk was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection. Supplementation with AA alone had no effect on breastmilk AA, but tended to reduce EPA and DHA levels. Administration of a combination of AA, EPA and DHA tended to increase both milk AA and long chain PUFA (LCPUFA)omega 3 content. A larger simultaneous increase of milk AA, DHA and EPA than observed in the present study can probably be accomplished by the use of a combination of a lower LCPUFA omega 6/LCPUFA omega 3 ratio and higher AA, EPA and DHA dosages.