Hemospermia causes anxiety in many men. Its etiology includes inflammatory disorders, vascular lesions, malignancies and congenital anomalies. With the advent of modern transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and magnetic resonance imaging technology, we can now visualize the internal structures of the seminal vesicles and prostate, and identify a more accurate etiology for hemospermia. This study was performed to assess the efficacy of TRUS in the evaluation of hemospermia.
TRUS was used to evaluate 40 patients with hemospermia. Patients' ages ranged from 20 to 72 years, with an average age of 41 years. The duration of symptoms was 3 days to 10 years, (average age 12.4 months). Apart from three patients with hepatitis, there was no major illness found in the medical histories. TRUS was performed with a B & K, type 3535 transrectal transducer device, with an 1850 multiplane probe.
TRUS revealed abnormalities in 33 (83%) of 40 patients, which included ejaculatory duct cysts, müllerian duct cysts, asymmetric seminal vesicle dilatation, preprostatic vein engorgement and prostatic enlargement. There were stones in the ejaculatory ducts, ejaculatory duct cysts, müllerian duct cysts or prostate. Nine patients with prostatic stones were under 40 years-of-age. Other than the development of stones, there were no significant differences between patients less than 40 years-of-age and those more than 40 years old.
The results suggest that TRUS is an effective method for examining the seminal vesicles, ejaculatory duct and prostate complex. Sonoguided aspiration, injection of contrast medium or biopsy can further help to differentiate the nature of hemospermia.