The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) is required for the maintenance of the viral chromosome in latently infected, proliferating cells and plays a role in latent cycle DNA replication. EBNA-1 also functions as a positive and negative regulator of EBV gene expression. We have investigated the interaction of EBNA-1 with p32, a host mitochondrial protein that associates with EBNA-1 in EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found that a fraction of p32 localizes to the viral latent cycle origin of DNA replication oriP in vivo. p32 binds EBNA-1 independently of other proteins or DNA. EBNA-1 variants lacking one of two p32 binding elements did not interact stably with p32 in cultured cells and were defective for both transcriptional activation of a reporter gene linked to oriP FR and replication and/or maintenance of a plasmid bearing oriP. These results support a role for p32 in transcriptional activation by EBNA-1 and suggest that p32 plays a role in EBV latent cycle DNA replication.