Approximately 10% of human cutaneous melanoma cases occur in families with the familial atypical multiple mole melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome, which is characterised by the familial occurrence of melanomas and atypical precursor naevi. A melanoma-associated gene has been mapped to 9p2l, encoding for the tumour suppressor gene CDKN2A. Worldwide, germline mutations in melanoma kindreds implicate this cell cycle regulator (p16) as a susceptibility gene for malignant melanoma. Most FAMMM families registered at the Leiden Pigmented Lesions Clinic share the same CDKN2A inactivating deletion (P16-Leiden). Presymptomatic DNA diagnosis will now be available for P16-Leiden positive FAMMM family members at the Leiden University Medical Centre.