The interstitial tissue of the testes from healthy boars, and unilateral and bilateral abdominal cryptorchid boars was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The left and right testes of healthy boars, and the left (scrotal) testis of unilateral cryptorchid boars had abundant mature Leydig cells, few fibroblasts and mast cells, scarce and small blood vessels, and little lymphatic areas. The right (abdominal) testis of unilateral cryptorchid boars contained abundant Leydig cells, fibroblasts and erythrocytes, scarce mast cells, and frequent blood vessels; Leydig cells exhibited either a mature but degenerative appearance or an immature appearance, and fibroblasts displayed immaturity signs. The interstitial tissue of the left (abdominal) testes of bilateral cryptorchid boars had small blood vessels surrounded by erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and few plasma cells, and abundant mature and immature Leydig cells, immature fibroblasts, and mast cells. Mature Leydig cells showed mid or advanced degeneration, and immature Leydig cells displayed either non-degenerative or degenerative patterns. The right (abdominal) testes of bilateral cryptorchid boars contained scarce immature Leydig cells in advanced degeneration, large fibrous and adipose areas, and blood vessels. These results indicated that unilateral abdominal cryptorchidism affect neither the structural nor the cytologic features of the interstitial tissue in scrotal testes. Unilateral and bilateral cryptorchidism induced abnormal differentiation of Leydig cells and fibroblasts leading to decreased steroid production and increased collagenization in abdominal testes.