Despite the declining trend, stomach cancer remains the second most common cancer worldwide. We examined the role of green tea consumption on chronic gastritis and stomach cancer risks. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Yangzhong, China, with 133 stomach cancer cases, 166 chronic gastritis cases, and 433 healthy controls. Epidemiologic data were collected by standard questionnaire and odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models in SAS. Inverse association was observed between green tea drinking and chronic gastritis and stomach cancer risks. After adjusting for age, gender, education, body mass index, pack-years of smoking and alcohol drinking, ORs of green tea drinking were 0.52 (95% CI: 0.29-0.94) and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.31-0.77) for stomach cancer and chronic gastritis, respectively. In addition, dose-response relationships were observed with years of green tea drinking in both diseases. The results provide further support on the protective effect of green tea against stomach cancer. This is the first time that green tea drinking was found to be protective against chronic gastritis, which may be of importance when designing intervention strategies for stomach cancer and its pre-malignant lesions in the high-risk population.