The antioxidant effects of water extracts of roasted barley (WERB) were investigated under different roasting temperatures and compared with those of the water extracts of unroasted barley (WEUB). It was found that the Maillard reaction products increased upon increasing the roasting temperatures. Both WERB and WEUB exhibited significant antioxidant activities in linoleic acid and liposome model systems. Although WERB and WEUB afforded considerable protection against the damage of deoxyribose and proteins, the antioxidant efficiency of roasted samples was weaker than that of unroasted samples because of the reduction of antioxidant components (catechin, tocopherol, and lutein) with increasing roasting temperature. Unroasted samples were more effective in reducing power, quenching free radical, hydroxyl radical, and chelating iron than the roasted samples. The different antioxidant activity among roasted and unroasted barley samples may be partly attributed to the changes in catechin, tocopherol, and lutein contents.