The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare three commercially available nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Roche PCR and Becton Dickinson strand displacement amplification (SDA) were performed on 733 endocervical swab specimens from commercial sex workers. Abbott ligase chain reaction (LCR) was performed on a subset of 396 samples. Endocervical specimens from all women were also tested by culture for N. gonorrhoeae and by Syva MicroTrak enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for C. trachomatis. A positive N. gonorrhoeae result was defined as a positive result by culture or by two NAATs, and a positive C. trachomatis result was defined as a positive result by two tests. According to these definitions, the sensitivities and specificities for the subsample of 396 specimens of N. gonorrhoeae culture, PCR, SDA, and LCR were 69.8, 95.2, 88.9, and 88.9% and 100, 99.4, 100, and 99.1%, respectively; the sensitivities and specificities of C. trachomatis EIA, PCR, SDA, and LCR were 42.0, 98.0, 94.0, and 90.0% and 100, 98.0, 100, and 98.6%, respectively. The performance characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae culture, PCR, and SDA and C. trachomatis EIA, PCR, and SDA for all 733 specimens were defined without inclusion of LCR results and by discrepant analysis after resolution of discordant N. gonorrhoeae PCR results and of discordant C. trachomatis EIA and PCR results by LCR testing. The sensitivities of N. gonorrhoeae culture, PCR, and SDA before and after LCR resolution were 67.8, 95.7, and 93.9% and 65, 95.8, and 90.0%, respectively. The sensitivities of C. trachomatis EIA, PCR, and SDA decreased from 39.4, 100, and 100% to 38.7, 98.7, and 94.7%, respectively. All three NAATs proved to be superior to N. gonorrhoeae culture and to C. trachomatis EIA. The accuracies of the different NAATs were quite similar. SDA was the only amplification assay with 100% specificity for detection of both N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis in endocervical specimens.