In 13 human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infected patients receiving a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) annual influenza vaccination was conducted. It was hoped that HAART would prevent a post-vaccination increase in HIV-1 load and potential adverse effects. Only two patients had an increased viral load on day 14 post vaccination (p.v.). At 6 months p.v., the majority of the patients had a significantly increased CD4 cell count and a significantly decreased viral load. This indicates that HAART can protect patients from adverse consequences of influenza vaccination. The production of antibodies to the influenza A and B viruses in the HIV-infected patients was substantially lower than that in healthy persons. We propose that HIV-positive patients receiving HAART should be subjected to annual influenza vaccination.