Traditional resuscitation regimens have been recently challenged. This study evaluates hypotensive resuscitation with a hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying (HBOC) solution after severe hemorrhage in a porcine model. We hypothesized that HBOC-201 restores tissue perfusion at a lower mean arterial pressure than standard resuscitation fluids.
Yorkshire swine (55-65 kg, n = 30), were rapidly hemorrhaged to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 30 mm Hg, maintained hypotensive for 45 minutes, and randomized into groups. Group I was resuscitated with an HBOC solution to a MAP of 60 mm Hg. Groups II and III were resuscitated to a MAP of 80 mm Hg with lactated Ringer's solution (LR) alone or LR (40 mL/kg) followed by shed blood, respectively. Group IV was resuscitated with shed blood alone to a MAP of 60 mm Hg. Group V received an HBOC solution to a MAP of 50 mm Hg. Hemodynamic variables, Swan-Ganz parameters, blood gas samples, and lactate levels were followed for 5 hours. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance/Duncan multiple range test.
There were no significant differences in mortality between any groups. Groups I, IV, and V had lower (p < 0.05) cardiac output, pulmonary artery wedge pressure, and MAP than either group II or group III. Svo2 was significantly lower in the HBOC groups. There were no significant differences in arterial pH or lactate between groups I, III, and IV. Lactate levels, base excess, and arterial pH were significantly worse in the LR-alone and HBOC-50 groups.
Hypotensive resuscitation with HBOC-201 at a MAP of 60 mm Hg after a controlled hemorrhage in swine provides sufficient tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery to reverse anaerobic metabolism on the basis of global physiologic markers despite continued hypotension, hypovolemia, and low cardiac output.