Acetaldehyde is a main factor of alcohol-induced asthma. We previously reported that the cysteinyl leukotriene (cys-LT) receptor antagonist, pranlukast hydrate, inhibits acetaldehyde-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the involvement of cys-LT on bronchial responsiveness to acetaldehyde in asthmatic patients. We investigated the bronchial response to inhalation of acetaldehyde in 10 asthmatic patients, who were treated with placebo or pranlukast hydrate (225.5 mg), a cys-LT receptor antagonist, twice a day for 1 wk using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Although a remarkable improvement of acetaldehyde bronchoconstriction was observed in 3 out of 10 subjects, PC(20)-AcCHO values were identical between placebo [12.0 (GSEM, 1.192) mg/ml] and pranlukast [14.7 (GSEM, 1.245) mg/ml] groups. The changes in bronchial responsiveness to acetaldehyde were similar in the six patients who had never experienced alcohol-induced asthma and the four who had. In conclusion, cys-LTs are not involved in acetaldehyde-induced bronchoconstriction.