Renal replacement treatment options are life-saving treatments for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, prolonged survival in patients with ESRD is associated with various functional and morphological disorders from almost all systems. Anaemia, deconditioning, cardiac dysfunction. impairment of cardiac autonomic control and skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue, primarily because of 'uraemic' myopathy and neuropathy, are the main predisposing factors for their poor functional ability. Physical training is being recommended as a complementary therapeutic modality. There are generally 3 methods of exercise training applied in patients with ESRD: (i) the supervised outpatient programme that is held in a rehabilitation centre; (ii) a home exercise rehabilitation programme; and (iii) exercise rehabilitation programme during the first hours of the haemodialysis treatment in the renal unit. All the available training data show that the application of an exercise training programme in patients with ESRD enhances their physical fitness. This improvement is due to central and mainly peripheral adaptations. Exercise training in these patients increases aerobic capacity, causes favourable left ventricular functional adaptations, reduces blood pressure in patients with hypertension, modifies other coronary risk factors, increases the cardiac vagal activity and suppresses the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. Moreover, exercise training has beneficial effects on muscle structural and functional abnormalities. These central and peripheral adaptations to exercise training cause an increase in their functional capacity and offer them achance of a better quality of life. Moreover, exercise training improves exercisee tolerance of renal post-transplant patients.