Acute chest syndrome (ACS) of sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized pathologically by vaso-occlusive processes that result from abnormal interactions between sickle red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and/or platelets, and the vascular endothelium. One potential mechanism of vascular damage in ACS is by generation of oxygen-related molecules, such as superoxide (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxynitrite (ONOO-), and the hydroxyl (*OH) radical. The present review summarizes the evidence for alterations in oxidant stress during ACS of SCD, and the potential contributions of RBCs, WBCs and the vascular endothelium to this process.
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