We report a patient with Ph-positive CML who developed a Ph-negative AML in donor cells 14 months after BMT from an HLA-identical male unrelated donor. The Ph translocation could not be detected by either conventional cytogenetics, FISH or RT-PCR analysis excluding relapse of CML in myeloid blast crisis. Chimerism studies were performed by variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis. These revealed donor-type hematopoiesis in both unseparated mononuclear cells and CD34+ selected blasts proving the leukemia to be of donor origin. The patient received three cycles of polychemotherapy with mitoxantrone, topotecan and ara-c resulting in CR after the first treatment cycle and reconstitution with donor hematopoiesis. A second transplant from a female alternative matched unrelated donor was performed after conditioning with fludarabine and 200 cGy TBI and was well tolerated. Nine months after the second transplant the patient is at home and in CR. T cell chimerism was studied by sex chromosome analysis and revealed complete female donor chimerism.