We report the isolation and initial characterisation of Indian Ocean ciguatoxin (I-CTX) present in toxic lipid soluble extracts isolated from ciguateric fishes collected off the Republic of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean. Following i.p. injection of this extract, mice displayed symptoms that were similar, though not identical, to those produced by Pacific and Caribbean ciguatoxins (P-CTXs and C-CTXs). Using a radiolabelled brevetoxin (PbTx) binding assay and mouse bioassay guided fractionation, I-CTX was purified by Florisil, Sephadex LH-20 and TSK HW-40S chromatography with good recovery. Isolation to purity was not possible by preparative reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) due to significant losses of toxicity. However, analytical reversed phase HPLC coupled to an electrospray mass spectrometry detector identified a [M + H](+) ion at m/z 1141.58 which co-eluted with activity that displaced [3H]-PbTx binding to rat brain. This mass corresponded to C-CTX-1, but the fragmentation pattern of I-CTX showed a different ratio of pseudo molecular and product ions. I-CTX was found to elute later than P-CTX-1 but was practically indistinguishable from C-CTX-1 on reversed phase HPLC, while the TSK HW-40S column chromatography differentiated I-CTX from the later eluting C-CTX-1. Taken together, these results indicate that I-CTX is a new ciguatoxin (CTX) responsible for ciguatera caused by reef fish in the Indian Ocean.