Helicobacter pylori colonization is associated with gastric cancer, but whether and to what extent the risk is greater for strains with the cagA gene than for those without needs to be determined. Between 1967 and 1977, 9963 Japanese American men were recruited and examined. By 1996, incident cases of gastric carcinoma of the distal stomach had been diagnosed in 261 men. Stored serum samples from these case patients and 261 age-matched control subjects were tested for immunoglobulin G antibodies to H. pylori and to the CagA product of H. pylori, using antibody-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Compared with H. pylori-negative, CagA-negative men, H. pylori-positive, CagA-negative men had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-5.6) for intestinal gastric carcinoma. Men seropositive for both H. pylori and CagA had an OR of 4.1 (95% CI, 2.2-7.7). This suggests that colonization by an H. pylori strain with the cagA gene is associated with a greater risk of intestinal gastric carcinoma.