Iron therapy, advanced oxidation protein products, and carotid artery intima-media thickness in end-stage renal disease.
Increased common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) is a marker of early atherosclerosis. Low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Low-grade inflammation and increased CCA-IMT are observed in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Oxidative stress is involved in uremia-related inflammation. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) are markers of oxidant-mediated protein damage in ESRD. Intravenous iron given to patients on hemodialysis (HD) might induce oxidative stress. We investigated the relationships between AOPP, iron therapy, and CCA-IMT in stable HD patients.
METHODS AND RESULTS
Plasma AOPP and blood chemistry, including iron status, were analyzed in a cohort of 79 ESRD patients on HD. Measurements of CCA-IMT and CCA diameter, as assessed by B-mode ultrasonography, were obtained in 60 patients. AOPP levels were elevated in ESRD patients, and in univariate (r=0.42, P<0.0001) and multivariate analyses (r=0.38, P<0.001), they correlated with serum ferritin and with the intravenous iron dose received during the 12 months preceding the study (ferritin, P<0001; AOPP, P<0.01). Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the AOPP concentration as being significantly associated with CCA-IMT (P=0.0197) and CCA wall-to-lumen ratio (r=0.560, P<0.0001). Independently of AOPP concentration, cumulative iron dose was positively related to CCA-IMT (P=0.015) in patients <60 years.
In ESRD patients, CCA-IMT and CCA wall-to-lumen ratio were associated with plasma AOPP, serum ferritin, and the annual intravenous iron dose administered. These findings support the concept of a role of oxidative stress in the early atherosclerosis of ESRD patients, which may be increased by the usually recommended doses of intravenous iron.
INSERM U507 and Service de Néphrologie, Hôpital Necker, Paris, France.
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Carotid Artery Diseases
Carotid Artery, Common
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Kidney Failure, Chronic
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't