There are several factors that affected calcium bioavailability, such as physiological and dietary factors. These dietary factors help to achieve an appropiate status of calcium for a correct bone mineralization. In this pathway, recently some compounds present in milk that seem improve calcium absorption such as lactose and certain caseinophosphopeptides formed during digestion of caseins have been studied. On the other hand, the possible inhibitatory effect of fiber has been also studied, without conclusive results between in vitro and in vivo studies and the role of phytic acid on impairs calcium bioavailability could be prevented by using fructo-oligosaccharides, which cannot be digested in the small intestine and arrive practically intact to the colon, where are fermented. Finally, calcium fortification must be executed by suitable compounds with high bioavailability, better technological properties, and a correct calcium:phosphorus ratio. For that reason, the objective of the present article is to review the influence of all these conditional factors on calcium bioavailability.