In this study, we concurrently examined the effects of 8 and 40 weeks of growth hormone replacement (GHR) on lipids, lipoprotein composition, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) size, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apolipoprotein (apo)B kinetics and LDL apoB kinetics. Eight weeks of GHR did not alter lipid profiles. Forty weeks of GHR increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration (P =.01), nonsignificantly reduced LDL-C (P =.06), and reduced the HDL/LDL-C ratio (P =.04). Forty weeks of GHR increased HDL free cholesterol (P =.03), total cholesterol (P =.01), and cholesterol ester (P <.01) concentrations. No other significant changes in VLDL, LDL, or HDL composition or LDL size were noted at any time. Eight weeks of GHR reduced VLDL apoB absolute secretion rate (ASR, P =.03), with nonsignificant reductions in fractional secretion rate (FSR, P =.09) and pool size (P =.09). After 40 weeks of GHR, the VLDL apoB ASR, FSR, and pool size were not significantly different from baseline. Forty weeks of GHR increased both LDL apoB FSR (P =.02) and LDL apoB ASR (P =.04), with a small decrease in pool size. Thus, GHR may have important antiatherogenic effects; HDL-C increased, LDL-C was nonsignificantly reduced, the total/HDL-C ratio was reduced, VLDL apoB production was reduced, and LDL apoB turnover was increased.