4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, interacts with 4-1BB (CDw137) expressed on activated T cells and delivers a costimulatory signal for T cell activation and growth. Various studies have demonstrated a role for murine 4-1BB in immune function, but relatively few investigations of human 4-1BB have been conducted. Here we report on the construction of a recombinant E1/E3-deleted adenovirus encoding human 4-1BBL (Ad4-1BBL) and its stimulation of antitumor immunity. Ad4-1BBL was able to efficiently infect several human adenocarcinoma cell lines and induce 4-1BBL expression on the cell surface within 24 h, this enhancing the antitumor activity not only of lymphokine-activated killer cells with a T cell phenotype (T-LAK) but also naive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This antitumor activity with T-LAK cells was further enhanced by addition of bispecific antibody (BsAb; anti-MUC1xanti-CD3). Cocultivation of Ad4-1BBL-infected tumor cells with either T-LAK cells or PBMC resulted in significant elevation of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production. Furthermore, remarkable tumor growth inhibition was observed in cholangiocarcinoma-grafted severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice to which Ad4-1BBL and T-LAK cells were administered when tumor size exceeded 5 mm in diameter. These results provide strong evidence in support of the efficacy of adenovirally delivered 4-1BBL for genetic immunotherapy of cancer.