Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined in twenty-one ambient air samples, eight soil samples and two stack gas samples, collected near or in a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Hsinchu, Taiwan. A systematic decrease of PCDD/Fs in the ambient air from the northeastern area was observed. PCDD/Fs levels measured in the ambient air range from 0.058 to 0.127 pg-TEQ/m3. Higher PCDD/Fs levels in the ambient air were found during winter. In addition, PCDD/Fs levels measured in the soil range from 0.524 to 5.02 pg-TEQ/g d.m. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) did not provide sufficient evidence that the environmental PCDD/Fs contamination was caused by emissions from the Hsinchu MSWI. An unknown PCDD/Fs source was proposed using congener profile analysis and supported by both PCA and HCA.