The role of surgery in the management of patients with sporadic (not part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1) Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is controversial. In this setting, 60-90% of gastrinomas are malignant and medical therapy can control the gastric acid hypersecretion in virtually every patient. Therefore, the progression of tumor is the major determinant of survival. Surgery will cure approximately one-third of patients with sporadic ZES. It will decrease the development of liver metastases and may improve survival. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy is the best preoperative localization study. Its results are as good as all other imaging studies combined. Operative techniques should always include duodenotomy (opening the duodenum) and meticulous dissection of lymph nodes in the gastrinoma triangle, because duodenal primary tumors are often missed and lymph node primary tumors or metastases are common. Postoperative evaluation should include secretin test because it is the most sensitive method to document cure and detect tumor recurrence.