Juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT) of the ovary are rare in children. The over-all outcome after surgery is relatively good, but the indication and type of complementary treatment for severe forms are still unclear.
A retrospective survey of the majority of patients with JGCT of the ovary admitted between 1965 and 1990 to 11 French oncologic pediatric centers was carried out. Medical records including surgical and histological data, were analyzed and each tumor was retrospectively classified by the same pathologist according to the Wollner classification.
There were 40 patients aged 7 months to 22 years (mean: 6 years); 28 were less than 10 year old at diagnosis. Three had enchondromatosis (Ollier's disease). At diagnosis, all patients presented with an abdominal tumor, 23 had developed manifestations of precocious pseudopuberty, 2 had signs of virilization after a normal puberty and 2 had secondary amenorrhea. Surgery was always the primary treatment: unilateral ovariectomy in 35 cases, bilateral in 4 and biopsy alone in 1 case. There were 21 stage I, 1 stage II, 16 stage III and 2 stage IV cases. 13 patients received combined chemotherapy and 2 abdominal radiotherapy. 34 patients were alive and disease-free 10 months to 26 years after surgery and 6 died. All 23 patients with precocious pseudopuberty had a favorable outcome.
This study confirms earlier reports. Unilateral ovariectomy is the first-choice therapy. There is no evidence that tumors complicated by rupture and hemoperitoneum require chemotherapy. Combined chemotherapy does not appear to improve the prognosis for the rare malignant forms. The factors of good prognosis are age less than 10 years and the presence of precocious pseudopuberty.