To examine the prevalence and characteristics of uncontrolled hypertension (HT).
A cross-sectional community-based study (1992-93) was carried out in Skara, Sweden, including 894 patients who consecutively underwent an annual follow-up at the hypertension outpatient clinic in primary care. Controlled HT was defined as diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < or =90 mmHg and systolic blood pressure (SBP) < or =160 mmHg and was used as reference. Uncontrolled DBP was defined as DBP >90 mmHg regardless of SBP level, and isolated uncontrolled SBP was defined as SBP >160 mmHg and DBP < or =90 mmHg. Proportions were age-standardized using the Skara population as reference.
The prevalence of uncontrolled HT was 43% (isolated uncontrolled SBP 18% and uncontrolled DBP 25%). Both men and women with isolated uncontrolled SBP were older (73 years, CI: 70-75; and 73 years; CI: 72-75) than patients with controlled HT (64 years, CI: 63-66; and 65 years, CI: 64-66). Men and women with known cardiovascular disease (CVD) less often had isolated uncontrolled SBP (OR: 0.4, CI: 0.2-0.9; and OR: 0.5, CI: 0.3-0.9), whereas men and women with known diabetes more often had uncontrolled DBP (OR: 2.3, CI: 1.3-4.1; and OR: 3.3, CI: 1.9-5.7). Men with known CVD less often had uncontrolled DBP (OR: 0.5, CI: 0.3-1.0, p = 0.04), and men with fasting blood glucose >5.5 mmol/l more often had isolated uncontrolled SBP (OR: 1.9, CI: 1.0-3.5, p = 0.04). In women, the following high risk factor levels were associated with uncontrolled DBP: fasting blood glucose >5.5 mmol/l (OR: 1.4, CI: 1.1-1.8), fasting triglycerides > or =1.7 mmol/l (OR: 1.4, CI: 1.1-1.8), body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2 (OR: 1.5, CI: 1.1-1.9), waist/hip ratio (WHR) >0.85 cm/cm (OR: 1.7, CI: 1.3-2.2), insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) >third quartile) (OR: 1.4, CI: 1.1-1.9) and microalbuminuria (OR: 3.2, CI: 1.7-6.2).
Uncontrolled DBP is in both sexes related to type 2 diabetes, whereas isolated uncontrolled SBP is related to older age. In women, uncontrolled DBP, furthermore, is related to several other CVD risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. Patients with uncontrolled DBP should be carefully evaluated for metabolic disorders.