Theanine, caffeine, and catechins in fresh tea leaves and oolong tea were determined by using capillary electrophoresis (CE). CE separated these tea polyphenols from three other tea ingredients, namely, caffeine, theophylline, and theanine, within 8 min. The young leaves (apical bud and the two youngest leaves) were found to be richer in caffeine, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECg) than old leaves (from 5th to 7th leaves). On the other hand, the old leaves (from 8th to 10th leaves) contained higher levels of theanine, (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (-)-epicatechin (EC). Results from a comparison of fresh young tea and oolong tea compositions indicated oolong tea contained more theanine and catechins than fresh young tea. Furthermore, it was found that the levels of theanine, EGC, and EGCg in young leaves rose markedly with the withering process. Caffeine did not markedly change. However, fully or partially fermented teas (oolong tea or pauchong tea) have a common initial step in the withering process. Fresh tea leaves or oolong tea extract (0.1%, w/v) markedly inhibited neurosphere adhesion, cell migration, and neurite outgrowth in rat neurospheres. Theanine (348 micrograms/mL) and caffeine at high concentration (50 micrograms/mL) did not inhibit neurosphere adhesion or migration activities, but EGCg at 20 micrograms/mL effectively inhibited neurosphere adhesion for 24 h. These results indicated that EGCg might affect neural stem cell survival or differentiation.