We determined the effects of short-term fasting and refeeding on temporal changes in plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1), growth hormone (GH), glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), in early lactating cows, non-lactating pregnant cows, and postpubertal heifers. In experiment 1, Holstein cows in early lactation were either fed ad libitum (Control, n=5) or feed deprived for 48 h (Fasted, n=6). Plasma leptin, insulin, and glucose concentrations rapidly declined (P<0.05) within 6h, and IGF-1 by 12h, but all these variables sharply returned to control levels (P>0.10) within 2h of refeeding. Plasma NEFA and GH concentrations were elevated (P<0.05) by 4 and 36 h of fasting and returned to control levels (P>0.10) by 8 and 24h after refeeding, respectively. In experiment 2, four ruminally cannulated pregnant non-lactating Holstein cows were used in a cross-over design and were fasted for 48 h (Fasted) or fasted with partial evacuation of rumen contents (Fasted-Evac). The plasma variables measured did not differ (P>0.10) between Fasted and Fasted-Evac cows. Plasma leptin, insulin, and IGF-1 concentrations were reduced by 10, 6, and 24h of fasting, respectively, in Fasted-Evac cows; and these variables were reduced by 24h in Fasted cows (P<0.05). Plasma glucose levels were reduced (P<0.05) by 48 h of fasting in both groups of fasted animals. Plasma NEFA and GH levels were increased (P<0.05) by 12 and 48 h of fasting, respectively. In experiment 3, postpubertal Holstein heifers were either fed ad libitum (Control, n=4) or feed deprived for 72 h (Fasted, n=5). Concentrations of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, and glucose in plasma were reduced (P<0.05) by 24, 10, 24, and 48 h of fasting, respectively. Plasma NEFA concentrations increased (P<0.05) by 4h, of fasting while GH levels were not significantly (P>0.10) affected by fasting. Collectively, our data provide evidence that plasma leptin concentrations are reduced with short-term fasting and rebound on refeeding in dairy cattle with the response dependent on the physiological state of the animals. Compared to the rapid induction of hypoleptinemia with fasting of early lactation cows, the fasting-induced hypoleptinemia was delayed in non-lactating cows and postpubertal heifers.