Information on the relative benefit of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) versus stent-assisted percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for improvement of cardiac-related health status in women and how it compares with men is limited. The Stent or Surgery trial compared randomly assigned CABG and stent-assisted PCI in 206 women and 782 men with multivessel disease. We examined longitudinal changes at 6 and 12 months from baseline by gender and treatment in 3 subscales of the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ): physical limitation, angina frequency, and quality of life. At the time of revascularization, women were older, more severely ill, and tended to have lower SAQ scores than men. At 6 months, SAQ scores after both procedures improved significantly in both genders, with greater improvement achieved with CABG. After adjustment for other factors, in men, CABG was associated with a 54.7% greater improvement in physical limitation compared with PCI, 31.3% greater improvement in angina frequency, and 18.3% greater improvement in quality of life. In women, these relative differences were 11.6%, 43.2%, and 39.3%, respectively. At 1 year, men continued to show greater improvement with CABG in all 3 dimensions (50.6%, 19.7%, and 15.3%, respectively), but in women the relative differences decreased substantially (1.6%, 11.1%, and 0.6%, respectively) due to a greater later improvement after PCI (p = 0.049 for the interaction among treatment, gender, and follow-up for the quality of life domain). Although CABG may be superior to PCI in men, in women, at 1 year after intervention, both procedures appear equally effective.