Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive and metastatic malignant tumor and is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection that exhibits type II latency. Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Our previous studies have indicated that interleukin (IL)-8 was over-expressed in many NPC tissues and was found to be significantly correlated with angiogenesis by immunohistochemistry.
In vitro design.
The influence of the EBV genome for IL-8 gene expression was studied using the EBV-genome-positive and -negative epithelial/NPC hybrid cell line NPC-KT. The EBV-positive and -negative clones were selected by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization.
EBV-positive clones expressed abundant IL-8 mRNA compared with EBV-negative clones. This result indicated that over-expression of IL-8 depended on the presence of EBV genomes in NPC-KT cells. Two encoded genes, latent membrane protein (LMP)1 and EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs), expressed in NPC were transfected in EBV-negative NPC-KT cells. LMP1 transactivated the IL-8 promoter, whereas EBERs did not. Moreover, the nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B binding site in the IL-8 promoter was essential for the response to LMP1, and the activator protein (AP)-1 binding site played only a partial role.
LMP1 induces IL-8 mainly through the activation of NF-kappa B and partly through AP-1 in NPC model cell lines, NPC-KT, and this suggests that LMP1 plays an important role in the angiogenesis of NPC.