A soluble protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae acts as a peroxidase but requires a NADPH-dependent thioredoxin system and was named thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx). The role of TPx in aging of stationary cultures of S. cerevisiae was investigated in a wild-type strain and a mutant yeast strain in which the tsa gene that encodes TPx was disrupted by homologous recombination. The occurrence of oxidative stress during aging of stationary cultures of the yeast has been proposed. Comparison of 5-day-old (young) stationary cultures of S. cerevisiae and of cultures aged for 3 months (old) revealed decreased viability, increased generation of reactive oxygen species, modulation of cellular redox status, and increased cellular oxidative damage reflected by increased protein carbonyl content and lipid peroxidation. The magnitude of this stress was augmented in yeast mutant lacking TPx. These results suggest that TPx may play a direct role in cellular defense against aging of stationary cultures presumably, functioning as an antioxidant enzyme.