Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon-, nitrogen- and oxygen-tethered 1,6-diynes 1a-9a and 1,6-enynes 10a-18a using cationic Rh(I) precatalysts at ambient temperature and pressure enables reductive carbocyclization to afford 1,2-dialkylidene cyclopentanes 1b-9b and monoalkylidene cyclopentanes 10b-18b, respectively, in good to excellent yields and as single alkene stereoisomers. Notably, the 1,3-diene and alkene containing cyclization products 1b-9b and 10b-18b are not subject to over-reduction under the conditions of catalytic hydrogenation in which they are formed. Reductive cyclization 1,6-diyne 1a and 1,6-enyne 10a performed under an atmosphere of D(2) provides the carbocyclization products deuterio-1b and deuterio-10b, respectively, which incorporate two deuterium atoms. The collective data are consistent with a catalytic mechanism involving heterolytic activation of elemental hydrogen (H(2) + Rh(+)X(-) --> Rh-H + HX) followed by Rh(I)-mediated oxidative cyclization of the 1,6-diyne or 1,6-enyne substrates to afford (hydrido)Rh(III)-based metallocyclopentadiene and metallocyclopentene intermediates, respectively. These transformations represent the first examples of metal-catalyzed reductive carbocyclization mediated by hydrogen.