The role of the endocannabinoid system in several diseases is currently under intense study. Among these, Alzheimer's disease may be a new promising area of research. We have recently reported the existence of profound changes in the location and density of several elements of this system in Alzheimer's disease tissue samples, indicating that a non-neuronal endocannabinoid system is up-regulated in activated glia. Additional data from other groups suggest that glial cells may be important elements in the regulation of endocannabinoid system activity, both in health as in disease. Some of these aspects are briefly discussed in the present review.