Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing in prevalence, and environmental risk factors have not been identified with certainty. There is evidence that oxidative stress, homocysteine-related vitamins, fats, and alcohol have a role in the pathogenesis of AD. Few large epidemiological studies have explored the associations between nutrients and AD, and there has been only one trial of vitamin E in the prevention of AD. Some studies suggest that high intake of vitamins C, E, B6, and B12, and folate, unsaturated fatty acids, and fish are related to a low risk of AD, but reports are inconsistent. Modest to moderate alcohol intake, particularly wine, may be related to a low risk of AD. Available data do not permit definitive conclusions regarding diet and AD or specific recommendations on diet modification for the prevention of AD.