Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing in prevalence, and environmental risk factors have not been identified with certainty. There is evidence that oxidative stress, homocysteine-related vitamins, fats, and alcohol have a role in the pathogenesis of AD. Few large epidemiological studies have explored the associations between nutrients and AD, and there has been only one trial of vitamin E in the prevention of AD. Some studies suggest that high intake of vitamins C, E, B6, and B12, and folate, unsaturated fatty acids, and fish are related to a low risk of AD, but reports are inconsistent. Modest to moderate alcohol intake, particularly wine, may be related to a low risk of AD. Available data do not permit definitive conclusions regarding diet and AD or specific recommendations on diet modification for the prevention of AD.
Taub Institute for Research of Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA.