A new, pharmacokinetically enhanced, oral formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid has been developed to overcome resistance in the major bacterial respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, while maintaining excellent activity against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, including beta-lactamase producing strains. This study was conducted to provide in vitro susceptibility data for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and 16 comparator agents against the key respiratory tract pathogens.
Susceptibility testing was performed on 9172 isolates collected from 95 centers in North America, Europe, Australia, and Hong Kong by broth microdilution MIC determination, according to NCCLS methods, using amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and 16 comparator antimicrobial agents. Results were interpreted according to NCCLS breakpoints and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints based on oral dosing regimens.
Overall, 93.5% of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid at the current susceptible breakpoint of < or =2 microg/mL and 97.3% at the PK/PD susceptible breakpoint of < or =4 microg/mL for the extended release formulation. Proportions of isolates that were penicillin intermediate and resistant were 13% and 16.5%, respectively, while 25% were macrolide resistant and 21.8% trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistant. 21.9% of Haemophilus influenzae were beta-lactamase producers and 16.8% trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistant, >99% of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefixime, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin at NCCLS breakpoints. The most active agents against Moraxella catarrhalis were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, macrolides, cefixime, fluoroquinolones, and doxycycline. Overall, 13% of Streptococcus pyogenes were resistant to macrolides.
The extended release formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid has potential for empiric use against many respiratory tract infections worldwide due to its activity against species resistant to many agents currently in use.