(1) Simvastatin and pravastatin are the two reference statins for type IIA and type IIB hypercholesterolaemia because they have the best-documented protective effect against cardiovascular events. Simvastatin and pravastatin are also the reference statins for familial heterozygous hypercholesterolaemia, though there is no evidence that they prevent cardiovascular events in this group. Statins are not very effective in familial homozygous hypercholesterolaemia. (2) Rosuvastatin is the sixth statin to arrive on the French market. The fifth, cerivastatin, was withdrawn from the market in 2001 because of serious adverse effects. (3) Rosuvastatin has not been assessed in terms of morbidity or mortality. The results of comparative trials in type IIA and type IIB hypercholesterolaemia suggest that rosuvastatin is slightly more active than simvastatin, pravastatin and atorvastatin on some lipid parameters after a few weeks of treatment. (4) Rosuvastatin has not been compared with simvastatin or pravastatin in familial heterozygous hypercholesterolaemia. One trial showed it to be slightly more effective than atorvastatin on cholesterol levels. According to one trial, rosuvastatin does not appear to be more effective than atorvastatin in homozygous forms. (5) In clinical trials the adverse effects of rosuvastatin were similar to those of other statins, with the exception of renal adverse effects. We don't know whether rosuvastatin is more or less likely than other statins to cause rhabdomyolysis. (6) Clinical trials reported some cases of proteinuria and renal failure suggesting there is a need for more thorough assessment in long-term trials. (7) In practice, statins with the best-documented benefits (simvastatin and pravastatin) should be used first for cardiovascular prevention in patients with hypercholesterolaemia.