To investigate the role of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in transdifferentiation of human renal tubular epithelial cell (HKC), in vitro cultured HKC cells were divided into 3 groups: negtive control, low dose CTGF-treated group (rh CTGF, 2.5 ng/ml) and high dose CTGF-treated (rhCTGF, 5.0 ng/ml). Then the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) were assessed by indirect immuno-fluorescence, and the percentage of alpha-SMA positive cells were assessed by flow cytometry. RT-PCR were also performed to examine the mRNA level of alpha-SMA. Upon the stimulation of different concentrations of rhCTGF, the expression of alpha-SMA were markedly stronger than that in negative controls. The percentages of alpha-SMA positive cells were significantly higher in the stimulated groups than that of negative controls (38.9%, 65.5% vs 2.4%, P<0.01). alpha-SMA mRNA levels were also up-regulated by the stimulation of rhCTGF (P<0.01). These results suggest that CTGF can promote the transdifferentiation of human renal tubular epithelial cells towards myofibroblast (Myo-F).