Melioidosis is an important public health problem in some regions of the world. It is endemic in South East Asia. The clinical spectrum of melioidosis is extremely broad, and melioidosis requires awareness on the part of the clinician and the existence of a laboratory capable of isolating and identifying Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiological agent of melioidosis. Beta-lactams such as ceftazidime is currently the treatment of choice. There is no vaccine licensed for human use. There is an urgent need for rapid diagnostic techniques and effective treatments that are affordable in countries where the disease is endemic.