Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence of hyperlipidaemia or dyslipidaemias is much higher compared to the general population. Total or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is highest in patients with chronic renal impairment. The majority of patients with CKD do not develop renal failure; indeed, most of them die of cardiovascular causes before the development of renal failure. The K/DOQI (Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative) guidelines on dyslipidaemias in CKD suggest that all patients should therefore be evaluated for dyslipidaemias. They should have a complete fasting lipid profile with total, LDL and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides measured to identify those at risk and those who require treatment. Generally, the treatment approach parallels that suggested by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, in which the main focus of treatment is the level of LDL cholesterol. Patients with CKD should be considered a "very high risk" category and aggressive therapeutic intervention initiated to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events.